GERMAN INVASION OF POLAND DURING WW2

Female and Young Victims














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PART ONE
 
A sampling of the 100s of entries compiled by the Slownik Uczestniczek Walki o Niepodleglosc Polski 1939-1945, ("Dictionary of Female Participants in the War for the Independence of Poland 1939-1945") published by the Panstwowy Instytut Wydawniczy in Warsaw, 1988.
 
 















CAUTION: NOT FOR THE SQUEAMISH!


















Abczynska, Janina, nurse, perished on August 30, 1944 during the Warsaw uprising following the aerial bombardment and artillery shelling of the hospital where she was working.
 
Abkin, Tekla, nurse, perished in August 1943 at the Plaszow camp.
 
Abramczykowa, Anna, while working for the underground, was trampled by startled horses in the village of Glusc on June 28/29, 1943.
 
Aczalik, Jadwiga, murdered by the Nazis on June 10, 1943 in the village of Huciska for hiding Jews.
 
Adwentowska, Irena, "Maria," (1922 - August or September, 1944), a message runner during the Warsaw Uprising, she was blown apart by an artillery shell. 
 
Aftykowa, Aniela, burned alive by the Nazis, together with her husband and two daughters, on December 10, 1942 at Wola Przybyslawska for hiding 2 Jews, who perished along with them.
 
Albinowiczowa (Albanowiczowa?), Zofia, "Sarna," (? - 2 X 1944), member of an AK partisan unit in the Suwalki area which was surprised at their bivouac near the village of Nowinka, by the enemy. Both she and her husband, Aleksander, perished in the ensuing skirmish. 
 
Aleksandrowiczowa, Anastazja (? - autumn 1942), a member of the command of a partisan unit in the Lublin area. Sons Pawel and Leon as well as daughter Maria (a messenger), were also soldiers in this unit. The family farm was used as a meeting place for the command. As the consequence of a denunciation, the farm was raided by the zandarmarie which resulted in a skirmish. Anastazja was shot and killed, husband Marcin died of injuries received and daughter Maria was sent off to a concentration camp.
 
Algierska, Zenona, active in the underground, she was caught transporting weapons in the summer of 1944 and after several bouts of interrogation with torture, she was shot at Solce.
 
Altszul, (given name unknown), (? - 3 XI 1943), a nurse at the Jewish hospital in the Warsaw ghetto; taken to Majdanek concentration camp where she was murdered.
 
Antczakowa, (given name unknown),  caring for Soviet partisan soldiers in December of 1944, she was shot in her own home at the Gradki colony, by German policemen, together with her 12 year old daughter, Teresa. Three other family members were hung near Mlawy.
 
Badowiczowa, (given name unknown), shot by the German police in Jaroslaw on March 7, 1943, together with her children (Genowefa, age 14, Maria, age 9 and Ludwik age 10) in retaliation for the guerilla activities of the local underground units of the AK and BCh.
 
Barankowa, Lucja, from Siedlisk (county of Miechow), was shot on March 15, 1943, together with her husband Wincenty (47 years old), her sons Henryk (12 years old) and Tadeusz (9 years old), her mother, Katarzyna Kopciowa and Wincenty's step-mother, Katarzyna Barankowa, for hiding 4 Jews (tailors from Miechow).
 
"Basia", (real name unknown), a teenage messenger/liaison for 104 company of "Syndicalists", she perished during the Warsaw uprising on August 31, 1944, in the Old Town.
 
Baczkowska, Krystyna, artist, during the Warsaw uprising wounded by a dum-dum round. She was regaining her health as the surrender was being negotiated but, already after the capitulation of the Polish side in October of 1944, was murdered by the Germans by morphine injection in the temporary hospital that had been set up inside the Palladium Theatre. Her sister Zofia also perished during the uprising and her brother, a soldier of the Polish Second Corps in Italy, was killed in action during the battle for Ancona.
 
Bednarczykowa, Anna, burned alive together with her 4 children (aged 6 months to 6 years) in the area of Poglodow on June 13, 1943, in retaliation for the underground activities of her husband Wladyslaw.
 
Bernatowicz, Pelagia, arrested in late 1942, in the town of Grudziadz, for secretly listening to the news on the radio during the absences of her employer, a German doctor, and passing on the news to the local Polish population. She was condemned to death by the Sondergericht.
 
Bialokurowa, Anna, (1897 - 23/24 V 1942), involved with the Home Army underground press, arrested at her home on the night of 28/29 IV 1942. She was imprisoned at Pawiak, then tortured during interrogations at the facility on Szucha Alley, but managed to commit suicide.
 
Bielakowa, Wiktoria, at the age of 45, a senior local underground operative in the Lublin and Warsaw regions, she was arrested on the 28th of August, 1941. Despite interrogation and torture "Pod Zagarem" she revealed nothing but, within days of her arrest, hung herself in her cell. She was awarded the Virtuti Militari posthumously.
 
Bielecka, Anna, (? - summer 1942), shot, together with the escaped Soviet POW she was hiding.
 
Biesiecka, (given name unknown), hanged in Lwow for hiding Jewish children.
 
Bobowska, Irena, "Wydra," (approx. 1922 - 1942), paralyzed as a child, brought to school in a "cart" by her girlfriends. During the occupation she was arrested for her work with the underground press and imprisoned in Fort VII where she was hanged. A second account has her arrested in the spring of 1940, imprisoned in Berlin at Alt Moabit, and executed by guillotine.
 
Bojanek, Stanislawa, teacher in Czestochowa, arrested on the 11th of February, 1941 for secretly teaching. Eventually wound up in Ravensbruck where she was shot, as part of a mass execution of Polish women, on the 13th of April, 1942.
 
Bokowa (Bochowa?), Jadwiga, nee Bilska, (? - 4 III 1944), arrested 6 III 1940 in Torun, transferred 16 IV 1940 to Ravensbruck as part of a transport of political prisoners. There she was accused of poisoning food in the kitchen of the SS unit, where she worked, and was subsequently shot.
 
Brelska, Genowefa, (? - X 1943), resident of Poglodowa, county Kielce, burned alive together with her two small children as punishment for her husband's particpation in the underground.
 
Celinska, Rozalia, (approx. 1892 - 17 I 1944), arrested and imprisoned 24 XII 1943 at the castle in Zamosc, shot together with husband Jozef (age 55), daughters Zofia (approx. 20) and Sabina (approx. 18) and son Edward (25) for aiding escaped Soviet POWs.
 
Cetysowna, Maria, "Szympans," (14 IX 1914 - 21 IX 1944), during the Warsaw uprising, she was a messenger for mjr. Netzera's "Kryska" AK group. She was wounded in the hand but did not seek first aid immediately. As a result of complications which set in, her arm had to be amputated below the shoulder. She returned to active duty after 10 days and fought until the end on Czerniakowska Street, when she and a number of fellow freedom fighters and some civilians were taken into captivity at 12 and 14 Wilanowska Street by a unit of O. Dirlewanger's SS brigade. She was shot inside the "Spolem" factory on Czerniakowska Street.
 
Chojnacka, Zofia, teacher, political prisoner, arrested in January 1942, imprisoned at Pawiak, murdered during an interrogation.
 
Ciurajowa, Jadwiga, murdered at Kolonia Fabianowka, county Lubelski; shot together with her husband, Fabian, in the forest at Jablon, for hiding Jews.
 
Cudzichowa, Aniela, arrested in early 1943 along with her husband and daughter for listening to the radio and for distributing anti-German literature. She was interned at Oswiecim (Auschwitz), prisoner # 17664, where she died on the 4th of April, 1943. Her husband also died in the camp but the daughter survived.
 
Cwenar (Cwynar?), Stefania, Home Army soldier in the district of Nowy Targ, arrested and imprisoned at the "Palace" in Zakopane. Transferred to Oswiecim (Auschwitz), prisoner # 6858, among a transport of 127 women from Krakow on April 27, 1942. Shot on the 12th of June, 1943.
 
Cyrwusowa, Elzbieta, shot on September 28, 1943, together with her husband Franciszek, on account of their son's involvement with the local Home Army.
 
Czajkowska, Grazyna Maria, "Kalina", student of architecture, acted as liaison for her unit during the Warsaw Uprising. Heavily wounded on the 26th of August and buried by rubble, she was dug out and taken to the local field hospital where her legs were amputated. Following the collapse of the uprising and while still in the hospital, she was murdered by soldiers of the S.S. unit "H. Reinfarth" on the 2nd of September, 1944, at the age of 24.
 
Czarnocka, Halina, "Lula", cook for participants of the Warsaw Uprising, was heavily wounded in the stomach on the 11th of August, 1944, during the evacuation of the RGO kitchen and died a few hours later.
 
Dabek (Dembek?), Wiktoria, murdered in the village Czernie, county Garwolin; shot by the gestapo together with the 10 Jews she was hiding.
 
Daglis, Leokadia, shot in March of 1942 for helping to hide a Jewish child.
 
Damska, Anna Maria, sales girl, member of the Young Women's Catholic Association in Bydgoszcz, arrested for sabotage and died of typhus while in prison. 
 
Danecka, Stanislawa, in the town of Miechow, both she and her husband Mieczyslaw, a police officer, became heavily involved in the underground early in the war. While running a coffee shop, used as a contact point for various secret activities, she was arrested in the first quarter of 1943 for her association with "Wyspa", an organization engaged in helping Jews. When the Gestapo learned who her husband was, they treated her especially brutally during interrogations but despite the torture, she revealed nothing. Severely beaten, she was taken to a hospital where she died on April 7, 1943.  
 
Dembowska, Henryka, of Warszawa, active underground participant during both world wars, she was arrested on May 15, 1941 together with her daughter Malgorzata and imprisoned in Pawiak. Her activities continued in prison. Mother and daughter were transferred to Ravensbruck on the 22nd of September of that same year where their activities continued until they were both shot on the 25th of September, 1942.
 
Dembska, Emilia, of Kolomyja, in 1944 was arrested together with her maid and some Jews hiding in her home. They were all taken to a nearby Jewish cemetery and shot.
 
Donarska, Gabriela, (approx. 1929 - X 1944), resident of Czubek, young daughter of Helena and Jan, a forester with the Ocypel Forest Inspectorate. Here, the gestapo uncovered a bunker-hiding place and weapons cache belonging to the local underground Polish Army unit "Gryf Pomorski." The father was arrested 18 X 1944 together with his wife, sons and daughter Gabriela, who died while being tortured during an interrogation.
 
Drozdowa, Maria, "Zenia", wife of partisan Wasyl Drozdow, was fighting in the partisan unit led by Col. Dymitri Miedwiediew when she was wounded during a skirmish on or about the 15th of January, 1944 in Przemysl county. She hid in a gamekeepers cottage, but finding herself surrounded by the Germans and Ukrainian police, she turned her gun on herself.
 
Faliszewska, Janina, (1907 - after 5 IX 1939), resident of Bydgoszcz, teacher at the E. Estkowski high school, member of the Western Union, arrested by the Selbstschutz, and after a few days, driven away and murdered at an unknown location.
 
Fillerowa, Wanda Stefania, (approx. 1915 - 17 XII 1943), active in the underground as an international courier (e.g. running money, mail, from Hungary) from the beginning of the German occupation, at the time of her arrest, she had been travelling between regions in Poland carrying the false identity papers of a Volskdeutsche, said to be working for the Wermacht and the Todt Organizaztion. Safely crossing the border of the General-Goverment 100 times, she was finally arrested on a train at the border of the GG and Ostland at Malkini in the fall of 1943. From the 25th XI 1943 she was imprisoned at Pawiak. Tortured during interrogations, she yielded no information and was so beaten that she had to be carried out on a stretcher to be executed; shot in the ruins of the Jewish Ghetto.
 
Frankowska, given name unknown, "Maryna," (1911 - 2 IX 1944), during the Warsaw Uprising, a nurse at the hospital at #7 Dluga Street, where she remained after the collapse of the Uprising in the Old Town sector. She was burned alive together with other staff and wounded Polish soldiers after the hospital was overrun by an SS unit of
General H. Reinfarth.
 
Fuczek, Agnieszka, shot sometime after April 18, 1941 together with her entire family (Antonina, Franciszek and Wladyslaw), by the Gestapo of the "Palace" on account of her activities with the underground.
 
Gadomska, Adela, seventeen year old active in the underground in the Suwalki region was arrested by the Gestapo on May 11, 1941 together with a large group of unmasked co-conspirators. Imprisoned locally and at the Neubau prison, interrogated and tortured and tried before the "Strafsenat bei dem Oberlandesgericht" on the 5th of February, 1943 she was sentenced to death. Despite an attempt at escape before her execution date, she was guillotined on the 3rd of May, 1943 together with Leokadia Orlowska. 
 
Galgan, Agnieszka, shot during the summer of 1943, in the town of Sokol Malopolska, for hiding Jews.
 
Gargasz, Zofia, murdered in Brzozow for helping Jews. (September, 2006 Note: According to her grandson the execution was never carried out. Zofia and her husband Jakub aided a Jewish girl, Henia. The two of them were arrested for this and tried before a court - judges Pooht, Stumpel and Dr. Aldenhoff, witnessed by Drs. Voltereck and Naumann - and although Zofia tried to accept sole responsibility for the "crime" both she and Jakub were sentenced to death on April 26, 1944. However, with the Soviets rapidly approaching, German governor Hans Frank communted the death sentences to terms in a concentration camp. The pair managed to survive the camp and were liberated by the Allies. Zofia lived until 1985.)
 
Garoniowa, Apolonia, shot together with her husband Stanislaw, in the town of Januszkow for hiding a Jewish child.
 
Gawrylowa, Klawdia, sergeant serving with the 1st battery of the heavy artillery of the Polish armed forces, died towards the end of the war (May 23, 1945) at Stolzenhagen POW camp in Germany.
 
"Georginia" (real name unknown), medical student then company commander of a Home Army unit in the Tarnopol area, her identity uncovered by Ukrainian Nationalists, she was murdered on March 30, 1944.
 
Heliakowa, Bronislawa, on September 7, 1943, together with 2 children, she was burned alive for aiding the independant underground army unit, "Surowiec," based in the Slawkowskie Forest.  
 
Kosowska, Pelagia, from the village of Dluzec in the countyof Olkusk, was accused of participation in the underground army during their battle with the Germans in the village of Lany Srednie. She was shot by the police at Czarny Las, near Wolbromia, on May 22, 1943.
 
Koszczabowa, Stanislawa, of Bydgoszcz, was arrested together with her husband, Wladyslaw, and daughter, Stefania on October 10, 1939. Tried on November, 10, 1939 by the Sondergericht and sentenced for anti-German sentiments expressed during the inter-war years and for aiding units of the Polish Army during the period of September 3 to 5, 1939 during the Polish defensive. She was shot in the prison on Wala Jagiellonska Street on the 15th of November, 1939.
 
Kowalska, Bronislawa (approx. 1902 - 6/XII/1942), resident of Ciepielowa Stara, county Lipka, burned alive together with her husband Adam (age 47) and 5 children (ages 1 to 16 years) for hiding Jews.
 
Kozakowa, Katarzyna (approx. 1878 - 1943), resident of Brzoza Krolewska in Rzeszow; shot together with husband Sebastian (age 70) and son for hiding Jews, their house set on fire.
 
Koziarek, Krystyna, "Aldona" (? - 2/IX/1944), first aid nurse for the underground WSOP AK Molotow during the occupation and during the Warsaw Uprising, killed in action at Sadyba while recovering the wounded under enemy fire; posthumously awarded the Cross of Valour.
 
Kozinowa, Helena (Stefania?) nee Surzyn (? - 4/V/44), daughter of Sebastian, resident of Makow Podhalanskie, arrested for aiding the local partisans, shot together with husband Emanuel, 4 young children and parents.
 
Koziol, Aniela (? - X/40), of Lancut; shot for hiding a family of 3 Jews.
 
Kozlowna, Jadwiga (? - 1942 or 1943), resident of Czaplowizna, county Wegrow; shot for giving aid to Soviet prisoners escaping from POW camps and Jews escaping from Treblinka.
 
Kucharska, Jozefa nee Rafalska (approx. 1911 - 17/VII/1943), mobilized into a first aid unit at the outbreak of war in September 1939 at Brzesc-nad-Bug, where she served until after hostilities had ceased, returning home to Miedzyrzeca wounded. There she ran a snack bar which was a contact point for the ZWZ-AK; At this snack bar, AK soldiers happened upon a patrol of zandarmes and in the ensuing firefight 3 zandarmes were killed. Jozefa, despite being in her final month of pregnancy, was arrested then murdered at the police station.
 
Kucharska, Mieczyslawa (? - 29/I/1943), resident of Wierzbica in the county of Miechow; shot together with her husband and sons: Boleslaw (age 11 years) as well as the twins Jozef and Stefan (age 7 years) for hiding Jews (of the Wandersman family of Wierzbica).
 
Kufta, Anna (? - 28/I/1944), of Lwow; mentioned in an announcement of the S.S. Chief for the District of Galicia as having been sentenced to death by a military court, for the crime of hiding Jews.
 
Kujalowiczowna, Aleksandra, "Olenka," (? - 26/IV/1940), resident of the village of Poddubowek in the vicinity of Sulwalki, teacher; during the occupation active in the secret schools and a member of the first underground army unit in her region, organized in late 1939, commanded by Polish Army Captain Stanislaw Bielecki (pseudonym "Ziomek"), denounced by Gestapo agent Zygmunt Majchrzak, arrested 16/XI/1939 together with Bielecki and other members of the group, imprisoned locally, tortured during interrogations, tried at Tylz, sentenced to death, shot together with her comrades at the so-called Swiss Woods near the village of Biala Woda-Prudziszki in the county of Suwalki.
 
Kupisz, Bronislawa (? - spring 1943), resident of the village of Chotel Czerwony, pow. Pinczow; shot by zandarmes from Nowy Korczyn, at her house, together with Piotr Kupisz, for hiding 3 Jews.
 
Kurowa, Zofia (1900 - 27/VIII/1943), shot together with her son Aleksander (age 17) in the town of Gamrat, pow. Minsk, for hiding 3 Jews.
 
Kurpielowa, Apolonia (? - V/1944), resident of the village of Tarnaw, wife of Stanislaw, a forester; shot together with her husband near the fortifications in Lipowiec, pow. Przemysk for hiding 24 Jews.
 
Kurtz, Agata (? - 28/XII/1943), resident of France; active in the Polish resistance movement, arrested, sent to Buchenwald where she was beheaded with a hatchet.
 
Kusiakowa, given name unknown (? - ?), wife of Wojciech, resident of the village of Lipowiec Duzy, pow. Bilgoraj; shot together with her husband and 2 sons (ages 21 and about 5 years) for hiding Jews. They were executed by the zandarmes and their corpses thrown into buildings which had been set on fire.
 
Kuszekowa, Zofia (? - 4/XII/1942), resident of Pantalowice, pow. Przeworski; shot together with her husband Jakub as retribution for the hiding of a dozen or more local Jews by residents of the village.
 
Kusmierska, Maria, nee Zukowska (9/VIII/1912 - 5-6?/XII/1942), daughter of Szymon and Zofia (nee Kulaski), arrested in June 1942 together with her husband Jan for their pre-war political involvement as well as their work in organizing a cell of the ZWK in the town of Zagornik. She was first imprisoned then transferred to Oswiecim (Auschwitz), prisoner number 9141, where she perished. As a result of the verdict of a special court, her husband was shot in July of 1942.
 
Kusnierzowa, Stefania, nee Borak (11/II/1921 - 31/I/1944), she and her husband were both members of the AK in Koniakow. One week following the hanging of her husband for partisan activities, Stefania was arrested together with her daughter Anna, her parents and her grandmother, Anna Kubaszczykowa, and transported to Oswiecim where she perished along with her parents.
 
Kusnierzowna, Maria, "Maria K," "Marysia" (1/II/1914 - 9/X/42), participated in various underground activities in Krakow, arrested on May 19, 1941 at her home. During a search of the residence the Gestapo uncovered incriminating evidence. She was imprisoned at Montelupa where she was tortured during interrogations but gave up no one. She was transferred to Oswiecim (prisoner number 17146) where she became ill with typhus and was killed with an injection of phenol to the heart. Awarded the Cross for Valour.
 
Kuterowna, Jadwiga, (? - 25-26/IV/44) a first-aid nurse with the 27th Wolyn Division of the AK, she perished in an explosion caused by an anti-tank mine, together with the wounded that were being carried, her siblings and fiance.
 
Kuzielowa, Katarzyna, (? - 1/XI/42) for aiding a Jew she was shot, together with her daughter, in the market place at Kamienica, county Limanow. Her husband Franciszek was shot at Nowy Sacz.
 
Kuzykowa, (given name unknown), (? - late 1942), lived in Warsaw at # 50 Sloneczna Street; shot in her home together with the three Jews she was hiding and another man whose name is unknown.
 
Kuzniarska, Waleria, nee Sekstas (30/X/1889 - 7/VIII/1943), daughter of Franciszek and Anna, wife of Grzegorz, was living in the village of Podcierno, county Minsk; mother of four boys, three of whom were soldiers in the GL. Out back of their home they kept hidden a cache of weapons (1 hand machine gun and 6 rifles). Waleria hid and tended wounded partisans. On July 7, 1943 a thirty man strong force of zandarmes assaulted the house, killing the mother as she ran to warn her sons of the danger. The boys engaged in battle with Mieczyslaw, Wladyslaw and Zygmunt managing to escape into the forest while Kazimierz was killed. The house was set on fire and the mother's body thrown into the flames. The well hidden cache of weapons was never uncovered by the enemy.
 
Kwapinska, Eugenia (? - 12/XI/1941), shot at Pogorska Wola, county Tarnopol, for participation in underground activities. A total of six women were killed in this execution and they were buried on the spot.
 
Kwolek, Janina (? - 19/X/1943), resident of Wola Komborska, county Krosnienskie; shot by the SS for hiding Jews.
 
Lewandowska, Eleonora (15/III/1882 - 25/IX/1939), born in Plock, daughter of Jozef and Julia (nee Podczaska), Sister of Charity, nurse; perished in the bombarded pavillion of the Hospital of the Child Jesus in Warsaw during the defence of the capital.
 
Lewandowska, Emilia (? - 4/XII/42), shot together with her husband Wincenty as part of a mass execution of villagers in the county of Przeworsk for aiding and hiding some 10 to 20 local Jews. 
 
Lewandowska, Genowefa, (? - possibly 1944), resident of Jozefka, county Lipnow, shot for aiding the underground.
 
Lewicka, Anna, nee Murawska (27/II/1905 - XII/1944), murdered in Zakrzew, county Brodnica, by the Jagdkommando for aiding partisans.
 
Librowska, Franciszka (approx. 1883 - 28/XI/1943), resident of Kolonia Kietlin, county Radom, shot together with her son Wladek (age 35), for hiding Jews.
 
Lipnicka, given name unknown (? - 1944), resident of the village of Chotowka, county Stolpce; murdered by the German zandarmerie together with her family (with the exception of her husband who was not home at the time) for hiding a Jew. Her home was set on fire.
 
Lis, Anna (16/IX/1909 - 11/VI/1943), born in New York, U.S.A, daughter of Jan and Katarzyna (nee Baran); was sentenced on 14/V/42 by the Sondergericht in Bydgoszcz for aiding units of the Polish Army and Polish civilian authorities to destroy the German subversive actions organized in Bydgoszcz September 3 - 5, 1939 during the Polish defensive war against the German invader; imprisoned at the "Ford" then transferred to Oswiecim, prisoner # 29071, where she died.
 
Litwinowa, given name unknown (? - VII/1943) resident of the osada Borsuki, county Rzeszow, widow, mother of 5 children; hid in her home Soviet soldiers escaped from POW camps and partisans of the "Iskra" unit of the Gl-Al, burned alive in her own home by the zandarmerie. Following her mother's murder, daughter Elzbieta joined the "Iskra" unit and died during a firefight near Trzebuska, county Kolbuszow. She fought to the end, despite being wounded, firing the light machine gun of a fallen comrade and throwing grenades, allowing 5 fellow partisans to escape.
 
Lubas, Zofia (? - 28/I/1944), of Zawierce, publisher of "Plomien", arrested in November of 1940, tranferred to Oswiecim 1/XI/1943, prisoner number 66555, where she died. 
 
Lubkiewiczowa, given name unknown, (? - occupation), resident of Sadow, county Wegrow; shot in public in the street, together with her husband, a baker, for giving a Jew a few crumbs of bread.
 
Lukaczowa, given name unknown, (? - occupation), perished together with her husband Eugeniusz, a pharmacist, in Lutowisk, county Lesko, for aiding Jews.
 
Machalowa, Barbara nee Majewska, "Basia" (29/XI/1919 - sometime after 4/XI/43), from Kielce, produced the underground publication 'Roch"; was arrested, imprisoned and tortured but gave up no one before committing suicide.
 
Machejkowa, Franciszka (? - 6/IV/1945), resident of Chodow, county Miechow, wife of Jakub, a farmer, mother of sons Wladyslaw, Jan and Stanislaw; arrested 24/VIII/44 at her home together with her family (save for son Wladyslaw who was active in the underground and published the "Glos Miechowa" -Voice of Miechow). All were imprisoned in Krakow at Montelupich Street. Franciszka was transferred to Ravensbruk, prisoner number 74,560, where she was eventually gassed. Her husband perished at the Flossenburg camp while sons, Jan and Stanislaw perished during the evacuation of the Lengenfeld camp.
 
Maciejewiczowna, Danuta, "Teresa" (23/IX/1924 - 11/VI/1943), native and resident of Warsaw, became involved with an undergound army (Konfederacja Narodu) as a messenger and first aid nurse, by January of 1943. In May of that year she became attached to the IV UBK (IV Uderzeniowy Batalion Kadrowy) which was active in the area of Ciechanowiec-Sokolow Podlaski. On the night of 10/11 June, 1943 during the unit's crossing of the Narew River she was severely bitten by a horse but nevertheless involved herself in that day's battle against German units near the village of Pawel. The engagement resulted in the destruction of the IV UBK. She was wounded in the chest by a dum-dum bullet rendering her unfit for further action and not wanting to fall into the hands of the Germans, was shot by her comrades at her own request.
 
Mackiewiczowa, Alicja nee Jakubowicz (approx. 1906 - to sometime after 7/VI/1942), resident of Warsaw, soldier of the ZWZ-AK, on 7/VI/1942, together with her 19 year old daughter, Maria Franciszka, was carrying a suitcase containing a radio transmitter, detained by the German police in Krakow, thrown into isolation cells in the men's section of Pawiak prison, tortured by the Gestapo during interrogation, Alicja shortly thereafter committed suicide by hanging herself in her cell; daughter Maria swallowed poison but was saved then tortured again to gain information. On 17/I/1943 she was transferred to Majdanek where she perished.  

Madejowa, Zofia nee Janus (1919 - 12/I/43), daughter of Maria, brother of (given name unknown) Janus, gamekeeper from Dzwonowic near the village of Biskupiec, county Olkuski; shot at the home of her brother together with her husband (Mieczyslaw, age 23), daughter (Krystyna, age 4), mother (Maria Janus), brother (given name unknown), sister-in-law (Helena) and their young son, sentenced by the German zandarmerie for hiding partisans and Jews; the buildings of their homestead were set on fire.
 
Magdalinska, Jadwiga "Jadzia" (? - occupation), a courier and messenger of the underground, organizer of an active WSK platoon, awarded the Cross of Valour in 1943, murdered by the Germans.
 
Magielska, Janina (? - 26/V/43), resident of the village of Przelom, county Kielce, was shot together with her husband Stanislaw by the German zandarmerie after being accused of partisan activities.
 
Magierowa, Stefania nee Kulig (6/V/15 - 27/VIII/42), born in Poremba Wielka, daughter of Wiktoria (nee Zmud), wife of Ludwik; accused together with her husband of helping prisoners to escape from Oswiecim (Auschwitz) camp, arrested, tried by the camp court and executed on the camp grounds; her husband escaped and avoided capture; her brother Wawrzyniec Kulig also perished at the camp in June of 1942.
 
Majdanska, Stanislawa "Lida" (22/III/23 - 14/VI/44), resident of the county of Kaluski, province Stanislawow; joined the civilian organization "Chlostra" together with her father in the spring of 1941; later she was a first aid worker in the Green Cross (BCh), organizing first aid work and information posts which relayed news of planned German pacification actions and attacks by Ukrainian nationalists against the Polish residents. She was killed in action during a skirmish with a unit of Ukrainian police.  
 
Paliwodzianka, Helena, born in 1894, prior to World War One, she was a teacher of history and geography at the Liceum Krzemienieckim (Krzemieniec Academy). Also a member of other organizations such as the "Komendy Chor. Wolynskiej OH," she was an active participant in the defense of Lwow in 1918. On the 28th of June, 1941 she was shot by the Gestapo as part of a group of 22 educators from the Lic. Krzemienieckiego.
 
Poniatowska, Wanda, involved in the Warsaw underground press, she was arrested together with her mother, Henryka Orlicka, on November 14, 1943. Both were thrown into the Pawiak jail then shot in the ruins of the Ghetto on February 11, 1944, as part of a mass execution of approximately 470 Pawiak inmates, 36 of whom were women.
 
Pytlowa, Anna, arrested for the partisan activities of her son, Jan, she was sent to Oswiecim (Auschwitz) (number 62721) where she perished in the gas chamber at the age of 61 on April 10, 1944.
 
Radwanska, Kazimierza, teacher, during the occupation in Warsaw taught in the secret underground school system and acted as a courier for the local AK. On an assignment to Bydgoszcz in April, 1944, she was arrested and sent to Buchenwald concentration camp, then later to Bergen-Belsen. In the end, she was transferred to Ravensbruck where, in April, 1945, she finally succumbed to emaciation and injuries sustained during interrogations.
 
Ratajczakowa, Leokadia. nee Zukowska (1910 - 6/VIII/44), participated in the underground in the propaganda and soldiers' aid units (BIP, KG, AK); shot together with her sister Helena Zukowska, during the Warsaw uprising at 129 Wolska Street as part of a mass execution conducted by attacking German units.
 
"Regina", name unkown (approx. 1914 - 11-12/VIII/44), initially a soldier of the TOW, then the "AK"; during the Warsaw Uprising was carrying a report when heavily wounded on Muranowska Street, died at the "Yellow House."
 
Rej, Aleksandra, (1914 - 16/IV/45), born at Wolozyna near Nowogrodek, daughter of Konrad; senior sergeant, engineering battalion, 1st Infantry Division, 1st Polish Army, died during the battle near Siekierka on the Oder during the crossing of that river.
 
Rogala, given name unknown (? - 1943), in 1943 a soldier of the GL in Lwow; surprised by the Gestapo while working in the secret GL print shop at the home of her sisters Helen and Maria Polaczek, jumped out the window but was caught together with other GL members. She and her sisters were tortured to death during interrogations by the Lwow Gestapo. 
 
"Roma", name unknown (? - disappeared after 5/XI/44), first aid nurse for the AK. After the Warsaw uprising she left the Kabacki Woods with the soldiers and in November 1944 joined the 25th AK Infantry Regiment. After the battle at Bokow on November 5, 1944 she stayed behind at the cabin of a forester with the heavily wounded soldiers who were soon murdered by the advancing German troops. Her exact fate is unknown.
 
Sawicka, Anna (approx. 1878 - 18/IX/43), murdered in Bialystok as part of a mass execution for helping Jews, together with her husband and daughter Jadwiga; a total of 22 persons from 5 related families were murdered in this instance.
 
Sekula, Romana (1924 - 18/IV/42), a student in Lublin, arrested for distributing anti-Hitler leaflets among German soldiers, imprisoned in Lublin castle, transported to Ravensbruck on 23/IX/41, shot at the camp together with a group of prisoners from Lublin.
 
Siekierska, Helena, "Lusia" (29/II/20 - 8/I/43), a young medical student working during the occupation in a microbiology lab at the University of Poznan. The university was eventually staffed by Germans with her being the only Pole remaining. A member of the underground from early on, she was working for the "OZ" of the Poznan ZWZ-AK in a unit led by Dr. Franciszek Witaszek. One of her duties was to steal serums and vaccines for the organization. Arrested 15/V/42 in a Gestapo sweep of Witaszek's group, she was tortured for two weeks by the Poznan Gestapo during interrogations held at the former "Dom Zolnierza", then imprisoned for more than half a year at Fort #VII, cell #17. Finally she was hung as part of a mass execution of members of her group, their heads guillotined at the prison on Mlyn Street. Quite a few group members lost their lives at that time but before their sentences were carried out the Gestapo informed them that many of their family members would be executed as well (which they were, children included). After the war in 1945, a number of the preserved, severed heads (Franciszek Witaszek, Zofia Gorzna, Halina Gunther and Helena Siekierski) were found in the basement of the State Medical Institute and recovered for a full military burial at the Poznan Citadel. Helena was posthumously awarded the Order Virtuti Militari.
 
Siekierzynska, given name unknown (? - IV/44), resident of the county of Pinsk in the province of Polesie; shot at Janow Poleskie in Drohiczyn county, together with her husband, a teacher, and 2 children (ages 7 and 10) for hiding a Jewish child.
 
Sikorska, given name unknown (? - 6/VIII/44), nurse; working during the Warsaw uprising at the Karol and Mary hospital on Leszno Street, murdered together with the hospital staff during the liquidation of the hospital by S.S. units.
 
Sikorska, Zofia (? - 4/I/44), Warsaw resident, active in the underground press; arrested in 1943 for her involvement in the underground together with her father, brother and husband, taken to Pawiak prison, tortured during interrogations and following the return to her cell after one of these sessions she attempted to commit suicide but was saved by medical intervention; transported to Oswiecim 12/XI/42 where she died of typhus.
 
Siniarska, Marianna (1901 - III/44), wife of Stanislaw, resident of the village of Lutowka near Grodziska Maz.; shot together with her husband and 3 children by German zandarmes from Mszczonowa, on the grounds of her home, for hiding 3 Jews, who were also shot; all were buried at the place of execution. 

Zabrocka, Lucja, arrested on the 26th of October, 1944 in Osow (county Chojnicki) for working with the partisans and shot on the same day together with her 3 underage children: daughter Teresa (14) and two sons (9 and 11).
 
Zagrabska, Bozena, resident of Torun, participant in the underground (Polskiej Armii Powstania). Arrested on the 17th of January, 1945 and jailed in Bydgoszcz, she perished 3 days later during the "death march" following the evacuation of the prison.
 
Zagrodzka, Halina, during the Warsaw Uprising she was a medic with the Home Army regiment "Waligora." While rescuing the wounded during battle, she was heavily wounded herself and did not survive the amputation of both legs, dying on the 25th of August, 1944.
 
Zajac, Maria (? - after XII/41), resident of Slask, was a soldier of the ZWZ; arrested in December 1941, sentenced to death and guillotined in Berlin.
 
Zamarska, Lucja (4/VI/1903 - 3/III/1945), resident of the village of Markowice in Slask; for hiding partisans she was burned alive together with her 20 year old son Arkadiusz, in her own home. The two partisans who were caught during the search were shot on the spot.
 
Zamiarowa, Maria nee Nylk (8/VIII/1901 - after 6/VIII/1944), during the war, was living on Dzialdowska Street in Warszawa, working in a factory and working with the underground together with her eldest son Bogdan. Both perished after the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising when the Germans carried out the mass murder of all of the residents of Dzialdowska Street.
 
Zaremba, Jozefa (18/III/1868 - 1/VII/1943), resident of the village of Nasiechowice, county Miechowskim; for participation in the underground she was shot by the Germans near the local church together with 16 others from the same village; buried at the local cemetery. 
 
Zawadzka, Bronislawa (1918 - 25/XII/43), resident of the village of Ratulow, county Nowotarski; shot together with Jadwiga Strychula and 2 other village residents on suspicion of belonging to an underground organization.
 
Zdebska, Anna (? - 10/V/44), resident of the village of Kobierzyna near Krakow; shot together with her family, Anna Poplawska and 2 other persons for hiding a Polish officer.
 
Zdziebkowska, Pelagia nee Weiman (15/IX/1903 - 22/III/1944), very active in the underground at Wirka, was arrested together with her husband (Teofil) and son (Jerzy) on 6(7)/X/41, heavily interrogated at the prison in Myslowice and despite acquittal was transferred to Oswiecim (prisoner # 65670) where she died.
 
Zielinska, Jadwiga (17/IX/1909 - 16/IX/1942), born at Chorzow, in early 1940 was taken for forced labour to Germany, to a chemical factory in Schlutup,where she passed on news of the outside world gained from German workers, to her Polish compatriots. She was arrested for this, tortured in prison, transferred to Ravensbruck where she was weakened by beatings, eventually dying at the camp. Her brother Ernest, a soldier of the SZP-ZWZ, was arrested on 5/V/40 while armed and was guillotined at Katowicach.
 
Zielinska, Rozalia (? - 1943), resident of the village of Gumniska, county Debickim; shot despite being in an advanced state of pregnancy for her husband's hiding of the Jew Winda, from Debica. Her husband was not home at the time of the police search. 
 
Ziembina, Maria (26/I/1905 - 23/IX/1943), resident of the village of Raba Wyzna, county Nowotarskim, shot for the participation of her husband and son in the underground.
 
Zienkiewicz, Wanda "Kalina" (1922 - IV/1944), messenger and publisher for the underground press, she became a first aid nurse in 1944 for the 4th company (commanded by ppor. Jerzy Krasowski "Czeslaw"), II batallion, 23 pp. 27 DP AK, engaged in actions in the area of Wlodzimierz Wolynski and Kowel, transferred later to the Division hospital where together with the wounded and other staff members, she found herself captured. Unable to tolerate the brutal treatment of the wounded, she shot the German commander with his own pistol and was then murdered.
 
Zietkiewicz, Maria (? - 12/XI/41), of Krakow, for participation in the underground, was shot in the village of Pogorska Wola, county Tarnow, together with five other women; buried at the place of execution.
 
"Zofia" (name unknown), "Pani Zosia" (? - 26(27)/VI/1940), arrested, imprisoned at Rzeszow, perished during a mass execution of 42 people in the Luzinski Forest near Debica.
 
Zuchowska, Wieslawa Seweryna, (8/I/25 - 5/VIII/44), completed secondary school clandestinely; from the first day of the Warsaw Uprising she helped out with first aid at the St. Lazarus Hospital in Wola; shot outside the hospital among a mass execution of 19 first aid workers. Also executed at that time were doctors, among them Dr. Lucyna Szymanska, nursing sisters, among them Olimpia Drozdowska and girl scouts from the first aid patrol, including Danuta Bobikowna.
 
Zelichowska, Janina nee Kluzinska (? - 10/XII/43), during the German occupation she was resettled from Kutno to the Government General, resided in Warsaw; arrested on 2/XII/43 together with her sisters Anna Rycerzowa and Jadwiga Sledziowa for aiding a Jewish family, imprisoned at Pawiak then executed in the ruins of the ghetto together with both sisters and Helena Sledziowa.
 
Zmigrodzka, (given name unknown) (? - III/44), resident of Poturzyn, county Hrubieszow; was helping to operate her son-in-law's (mgr. Zdzislaw Lecewicz) apothecary, both being soldiers of the ZWZ-AK; they were tortured to death by a roving band of Ukrainian Nationalists which happened to pass through the town.
 
Zmudzianka, Teresa, (approx. 1925 - 22/VI/43), resident of the village of Posadz, county Proszkowice; shot together with her mother, Katarzyna, brother Zdzislaw (age 10) and 4 other people for helping Jews.
 
Zoltowska, Amelia (1890 - 9/II/44), active in the underground, was arrested in the spring of 1943 together with her sister Halina for the crime of hiding Jews, imprisoned in Pawiak, transported to Oswiecim on 5/X/43, prisoner # 64606, where she died. Halina (7/IV/1897 - 5/II/44) was transported to Oswiecim 5/VIII/43, prisoner # 53905, where she died.
 
Zoltowska, Zofia nee Lysakowska, "Zofia" (28/XII/1904 - 29/III/1944), wife of Zygmunt, an engineer, both active in the Warsaw underground; arrested 28/II/1944 together with her husband at their home at 17 Kaliski St., apartment # 42 where they kept their AK unit's records and weapons were kept in the basement. Zygmunt was shot during the search while Zofia was taken to Pawiak, tortured during interrogations then shot as part of a mass execution in the ruins of the ghetto.
 
Zukowska, Helena (1908 - 6/VIII/1944), soldier of the AK; during the Warsaw Uprising she was shot together with her sister Leokadia Ratajczakowa in Wola; their bodies were incinerated near the church of St. Wojciech.
 
Zukowska Kazimiera (? - occupation), resident of Czyzun, county Lidz, for giving Jews shelter she was shot together with her husband, the 8 member Borowski family and the Jews.
 
Zurawowa, Franciszka (? - occupation), resident of Zagorzyce, county Ropczyce; shot together with her son Jan for hiding Jews.

N.B. These entries have been roughly translated from the Polish originals and many have been edited for brevity. The spelling of place names is difficult and while the root of the names is most likely correct, the endings may have been translated incorrectly in some cases.

PART TWO
 
Other Sufferings: Ravensbruck FKL and Youth Camps
 
The Nazis began to organize Concentration Camps (Konzentrationslager or KL and Frauenkonzentrationslager for women or FKL) as soon as they rose to power in Germany in 1933. These were to used to imprison anyone opposed to their regime and it all began with Dachau (near Munich), on March 20, 1933.
 
Soon thereafter, camps were set up just for women: Moringen (November, 1933 - March 21, 1938), Lichtenburg (March 21, 1938 - May 15, 1939 when it was renamed Ravensbruck).
 
Women were interned at other camps as well but mostly in Kommandos: working groups outside the main camps. Auschwitz-Birkenau utilized 20,000 female prisoners in a huge complex of this type. Buchenwald had 27 Kommandos; 13,500 women toiled at Neuengamme; 5,044 women, mostly in 16 female Kommandos (by November, 1944), at Dachau; 14,600 women at Flossenburg (April, 1945); 13,200 women in 10 Kommandos at Gross-Rosen; Majdanek (11,000 women working in the Lublin war factories, by 1943); Kaiserwald in Latvia (one-half the prisoners were women working for the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe); as well as Natzweiler-Stutthof.
 
The infamous Ravensbruck camp was located near Fuerstenberg. Planned for 15,000 inmates, it had reached a population of 40,000 female prisoners by 1944. Over 132,000 women and children from all parts of Europe passed through Ravensbruck, with 33,000 Polish and 11,000 French women constituting the largest groups. By the time of its liberation, 92,000 were dead, a staggering 69.7% of inmates.
 
Ravensbruck also served as a training center for female candidates for the SS camp guard system and it had the largest contingent of female SS guards of any camp, some 550 - 600 women. Some were notoriously cruel.
 
A male section was added in 1941 and as many as 20,000 men passed through that section.
 
Many notable women were held at Ravensbruck such as: Mlle. Genevieve De Gaulle (niece of Gen. De Gaulle); Mrs. Gemma LaGuardia Gluck (sister of New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia), her daughter Yolanta and five-month-old grandson, Richard; Olga Himmler (sister of Heinrich Himmler - incarcerated for an affair with a Polish officer), and others. 
 
Methodical extermination, terror and chaos reigned at Ravensbruck in the final months of Nazi power. To confuse the inmates and to cover the mass murder of women prisoners, the Nazis created a fictitious sanitarium called Mittwerda, to which all disappearing women were supposedly assigned. In fact, Mittwerda was the extermination center located just a few hundred yards from the main camp.
 
From May of 1942 a small Jugendlager (youth camp) Uckermark for delinquent German girls existed on the edge of the main Ravensbruck camp. At the end of January 1945 a part of the Uckermark camp was transferred to FKL Ravensbruck for the purpose of liquidating the women prisoners of that camp as well.
 
The "Rabbits" of Ravensbruck Camp
 
Between August 1, 1942 and August 16, 1943 seventy-four Polish women and an unknown number of women of other nationalities were subjected to experimental operations. The Nazis infected the "rabbits" - as the inmates called them - with numerous diseases and performed sadistic operations on them. The kinds of experiments performed on living women can be divided into the following categories:
  1. Infectious operations on limbs - the Sulfanilamide Experiments;
  2. Clean operations - Regeneration - a) on bones: breaking, removal, grafting, b) on muscles: removal, grafting, and c) on nerves;
  3. Amputation of limbs - bone transplantation;
  4. Sterilization experiments - a) with surgery, b) with X-rays, c) with chemotherapy in the uterus, and d) with caladium seguinum.

Dr. K. F. Gebhardt, one of Hitler's personal physicians and director of the sanitarium in Hohenlychen, near FKL Ravensbruck, was in charge of the human experimentation project. Hitler later named him director of the German Red Cross. Dr. Gebhardt detailed the experimental project at a conference of the Academy of Military Medicine in May of 1943, attended by 350 to 400 German doctors. Not one of them questioned Gebhardt's experiments. Before the end of the war the SS wanted to liquidate all the women on whom experiments had been performed, but the entire camp cooperated in helping the "rabbits" hide and survive.

Children and Teenagers in Concentration Camps      

Every mother's nightmare is to be separated from her children, and then there were the orphans too. The Nazis, of course, took care of the loose and troublesome children.
 
There were three main camps: Moringen bei Hanover, Uckermark in Brandenburg, and Litzmannstadt in occupied Poland (Litzmannstadt is the German name for Lodz). This latter camp had an additional two branches: Dzierzazna and Tuchingen. There was also SS-Sonderlager Hinzert.
 
In August 1940 the SS had opened a camp for boys in Moringen, and in June 1942 for girls at Uckermark. They were for teenagers of ages between 16 and 19, although an order was issued in February 1942 that "Polish teenaged criminals," after reaching the age of 16, should be sent to regular camps.
 
The living conditions in Moringen were typical of any concentration camp. The day began at 5:00 am, work commenced at 6:00 am and continued until 6:00 pm with a one-hour break for lunch. All prisoners were required to work. The youngest sewed knapsacks and haversacks, while the majority were employed in the nearby war industry, and others loaded and unloaded trains. Many work-related accidents occurred as a result of hunger and exhaustion.  Futhermore, excessive hard work, hunger and disease decimated the ranks of young prisoners.
 
The Litzmannstadt camp has been called "A Small Auschwitz." This camp was opened on December 1, 1942 and was intended for Polish youth between the ages of eight and sixteen. It was the only camp in German-occupied countries in which children from two years of age and even younger were interned under the worst possible conditions. They were beaten and abused even during the time when beatings were suspended in adult camps during the last phase of the occupation. The children were forced to work far beyond their strength. They were punished in special penal barracks, often without food for the entire day. They lived in very poor and unsanitary conditions without proper medical attention. 
 
Litzmannstadt was also called a Death Camp. The young prisoners were divided into political and criminal categories like those in regular concentration camps and did not know if or when they would be discharged. Two-thirds of the prisoners were children whose parents had already been arrested or wanted for participation in the underground movement; or whose parents had been arrested or wanted for various "offences" such as refusal to accept the Volksliste (declaration of belonging to the German nation). A considerable percentage of the prisoners were orphans or children without parental care, without homes or close relatives. There were additional numbers of children arrested for transporting food, for refusing to work, and for similar "offenses."
 
The Litzmannstadt camp existed from December 1, 1942 until January 11, 1945. During those years some 12,000 children - out of the 13,000 who entered there - died, that is, 92.3% of the children lost their lives in the camp. 
 
_______________________________________________
From Poland's Way of the Cross, 1939-45, Franciszek J. Proch, Polish Assoc. of Former Political Prisoners of Nazi and Soviet Concentration Camps, New York, (condensed)