THE SOVIET INVASION OF POLAND DURING WORLD WAR TWO

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Transcription of the booklet "In Defence of Poles in the U.S.S.R." Written by Kazimierz Plater-Zyberk. Issued in 1982 by the Polish Ex-Combatants Association - Free World Polonia, London and Toronto.  
 
This booklet outlines the sad treatment of Poles (and others) in the Soviet Union in the early 1980s, a full 35 years after the end of World War Two.

Introduction
 
This publication refers to the present situation of Poles living in the USSR whose number, according to most credible sources, is estimated at about 2,275,000. Poles in the USSR are the second largest group existing outside of Poland. The problem of Poles in the USSR which we are presenting includes three aspects which will be outlined in detail in the following chapters:
 
  1. The situation of Polish political prisoners detained for over 36 years in forced labour camps, prisons, and compulsory resettlement on USSR territory.
  2. The situation of the Polish national minority in the USSR.
  3. The situation of the Roman Catholic Church in the USSR (95% of the Polish national minority are Roman Catholics).

All the three above-mentioned points sum up the problem of Poles in the USSR who have been for years subjected to a determined and brutal discriminatory policy by the Soviet authorities.

The inhuman policy of persecution towards Poles living on Soviet territory, which for years has been applied by Soviet authorities, is a blatant example of the violation of all human rights and binding international treaties signed by the Soviet Union.

This situation compels us to present this publication in order to eliminate any discrimination and persecution of Poles living in the USSR by the Soviet authorities.

1. Polish Political Prisoners on USSR Territory

 
At the present moment, 167,094 Polish citizens are held as political prisoners in forced labour camps, prisons, and compulsory resettlement on Soviet territory. These prisoners can be divided into two major groups:
  1. Members of the intelligentzia and professional people.
  2. Officers and soldiers of the Polish Army.

Deportations of Polish citizens into the USSR started in 1940, after Poland's occupation by Germany and the USSR in 1939, in accordance with the Ribentropp-Molotov Pact.

The total number of men, women, and children deported from Poland into the Soviet Union at that time: 1,692,000. Of that number, 415,000 died due to extreme hardships, 219,300 were lost and unaccounted for, 16,000 officers of the Polish Army were murdered at Katyn and other places, 160,500 left the USSR as members of the organized Polish Forces and released prisoners of war for destinations in the Middle East. In total, at the beginning of 1942, some 881,200 Polish deportees remained in the USSR. Of that number, 20,608 joined the Polish People's Army in 1943. In 1944-45, when the Soviet Forces entered Polish territory for the second time, another tide of deportations of Polish citizens followed, this time comprising two categories of prisoners:

  1. Civilians, mostly male members of the intelligentzia - 50,200.
  2. Officers and soldiers of the Home Army - 49,600.

These were members of the following units:

  • The Wilno Home Army Group
  • 3rd, 5th, 9th, 24th, 27th Infantry Divisions
  • 2nd, 13th, 32nd, 72nd Infantry Regiments
  • other smaller units

Consequently, when the second deportation from Poland to the USSR was terminated in 1945, the number of Polish citizens in Soviet camps, prisons and forced resettlement amounted to 960,392 persons.

In subsequent years, a number were repatriated to Poland:

  • In 1945-48..........272,430
  • In 1955-56..........292,468
  • In 1959..................28,400

The approximate number of deaths for that period accounts for 200,000 persons.

All these statistics are confirmed by official statements and publications, as well as by historical research. At the present moment, therefore, in Soviet labour camps, prisons and compulsory resettlement in the Soviet Union there are about 167,094 Polish political prisoners.

The Location of Polish Political Prisoners

At present, there are about 1,800 penal institutions on Soviet territory, in which about 5 million persons, including men, women and children, are kept. The information we supply refers only to 37 of the forced labour camps, in which Polish political prisoners are kept.

About 60,722 Polish political prisoners live until this very day for at least the past 36 years in the above 37 camps, which are listed here. The remaining 106,372 Polish political prisoners are probably kept in labour camps, prisons or places of compulsory resettlement about which we have no specific knowledge.

{NOTE: The number in brackets refers to the number of Poles held in the camp. The maps contained in the booklet have not been reproduced here.}

Murmansk Region

  • Lumbavka Camp (2,570)
  • Lumbavka Komandirovka 1 (1,020)
  • Lumbavka Komandirovka 2 (680)
  • Lumbavka Komandirovka 3 (liquidated in 1963)
  • Saborovo (2,060)
  • Vychodnoj (1,520)
  • Noska (camp in uninhabited area)

Komi Region

  • Viermiensk-Vorkuta (1,150)
  • Izma (950)
  • Szczugor (750)
  • Uhta (1,050)

Sverdlovsk Region

  • Brezinki (2,100)

Gor'kii Region

  • Suchbezvodnoje (1,080)

Bashkir Region

  • Ufa (1,000)

Kazakh S.S.R.

  • camp name unknown (unknown)
  • camp name unknown (unknown)
  • camp name unknown (unknown)
  • Lebmorskaja 1 (950)
  • Lebmorskaja 2 (1,100)
  • Lebmorskaja 3 (1,150)
  • Karabash (1,500)
  • Alma Ata (no information)
  • Tiyupa (no information)

Kalmyk and Daghestan A.S.S.R.

  • Ugor Kaukaski (2,050)
  • Naviersk (no information on nationalities)

Georgian S.S.R.

  • Tibilisi (500)

Ukrainian S.S.R.

  • Voroniez (3,200)
  • Kamieniec Podolski (600)
  • Piervomajsk (520)
  • Kryvy Rog (850)

Moscow Region

  • Dudina (500)
  • Kaluga (500)
  • Yaroslav (1,000)

Estonian S.S.R.

  • Kadluga (no information)

Tyumen' Region

  • Tobolsk (5,100)

Magadan Region

  • Anurmin (1,000)
  • Kurgam (1,560)

Kamchatka Region

  • Uka (1,000)
  • Ivashka (2,500)
  • Tariya (no information on nationalities)
  • Kamienstii (no information on nationalities)
  • Nazavanii (no information on nationalities)
  • Ust Kamchatka (no information on nationalities)

Uzbek S.S.R.

  • Daria IV Komandirovka (3,070)
  • Daria I Komandirovka (unknown)

Turkmen S.S.R.

  • Kara-Kum (no information of number)

Irkutsk Region

  • No-name Komandirovka (8,000)
  • No-name Komandirovka (unknown)
  • No-name Komandirovka (unknown)

Buryat A.S.S.R.

  • Ulan Ude (no information on nationalities)

BAM

  • Belogorsk (1,080)
  • Progres (unknown)

Khabarovsk Territory

  • Konsomolsk (2,100)
  • Gavan (2,500)
  • Vangar (1,000)
  • Voloshchovka ? Komandirov (1,560)

Labour Conditions in Soviet Camps

Although labour and living conditions of political prisoners in Soviet labour camps were widely described by A. Solsheitsyn and others, it seems necessary to emphasize certain basic facts and details.

First of all, it should by clearly understood that human rights are totally disregarded in the Soviet Union and that elementary labour laws are being constantly violated in Soviet prisons and camps. These are genuine slavery camps, where a prisoner surrenders both his health and life to the brutality of a State.

Secondly, one must stress the fact that most political prisoners are held together with common criminal offenders and that they are being beaten and black-mailed by them with the silent consent of prison guards.

Thirdly, it should be specified what, in the Soviet Union, is considered as a political offense:

  1. A peaceful demonstration in a public place;
  2. A demand for social reform made verbally or in writing;
  3. A wish to emigrate from the USSR;
  4. Teaching religion to children;
  5. Critical remarks made about the government;
  6. Public prayer without the authorities' consent.

In order to confirm this as true, here is a quotation from an article in "Labour Life," a publication issued by the KGB for prison and labour camp guards, dated 26th November, 1974. This publication, full of anti-semitic and anti-American propaganda, published an article entitled "Rev. Bernard's Crime," describing the "crime" of Rev. Bernard Mickiewicz, a Polish priest from the town of Stryj near Lvov:

"Rev. Bernard was found guilty of encouraging young people to go to church, of teaching religion to children, of using Jesuit tricks in drawing young people towards the Church by way of discussing with them such subjects as: the sense and meaning of life, happiness, or the idea of justice."

For his "crime," Rev. Mickiewicz was sentenced to 8 years of labour camp with a specially strict discipline for criminals.

Another example of a crime is patriotism, which is strictly discriminated against by KGB publications, since patriotism opposes the compulsory russification of nations forming part of the Soviet Union. An article printed in the KGB publication "Labour Life," entitled "Nationalsim Spreads in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia Like Poisonous Thistle" could serve as an example in this respect.

The conditions in Soviet prisons and camps, as described by their former inmates and witnesses, show a gradual deterioration, reaching the pits of Dante's Inferno, about which Alexander Solshenitsyn wrote in his book "The First Circle." The book depicts a penal institution for highly qualified persons, called "Sharagha." Similar to other prisons, detention in "Sharagha" is preceded by a period of detention in investigation cells, where methods such as beating, starvation, solitary confinement, etc., are applied in order that a prisoner may normally succumb and be forced to plead guilty. This procedure might continue for a year, while prisoners are later transferred to another Gulag circle. One of these circles are the special psychiatric prisons for political prisoners, where sadism, brutality, and the application of special pharmaceutical drugs and psychiatric techniques cause irreversible changes in a prisoner's brain. Yet another circle are the specially isolated prisons where starvation, sadism and intimidation are the most commonly used methods towards the prisoners.

Forced labour camps are designed for both political and criminal inmates and are divided into various categories:

Regular camps, where conditions are as follows:

  • Reveille at 6 am, personal search of prisoners;
  • March out to work at 7 am, under the escort of armed guards and dogs;
  • A 30 minute lunch break;
  • Personal search of all prisoners, and return to camp at 8pm.

Prisoners who, due to sickness, are unable to fulfil the stiff labour norms, are subject to punishment by the camp authority. There are no safety regulations even for the most hazardous jobs. Prisoners, who carry out their work at a temperature of -50 F are not provided with sufficient clothing. Sub-standard and insufficient food rations for such labour conditions are the cause of loss of health. Sunday, the only day free from work, is devoted to indoctrination sessions. Especially strict personal searches are conducted on May 1st and November 7th, the two official Soviet holidays.

Stricter regulation camps:

These sort of camps differ from regular camps inasmuch as the labour hours are longer, and the food rations and work conditions are even worse.

Specially strict regulation camps:

Camps of this category differ from the two previous categories in the sense that their inmates are used for specially heavy tasks, live under worse conditions and receive lower rations thorugh a minimum period of 6 months.

Death camps:

41 death camps existed in the Soviet Union in 1980. Their inmates are forced to work in mines and uranium processing. This category includes camps whose inmates are employed at cleaning the exhaust pipes of atomic energy propelled submarines. These duties are carried out by prisoners without protective clothing. Work under such conditions is lethal for those who are forced to do it.

Another sort of camp in this category uses prison labour in industrial plants where there is a high volume of combustion gas or dust without proper ventilation systems.

It should be emphasized that there are no strictly defined boundaries between various "circles," and that transfer from one "circle" into another is caused by one of the following prisoner's "crimes:"

  • failure to rise in the presence of a guard or KGB representative;
  • failure to take his cap off before a guard or KGB representative;
  • failure to carry out the labour norm;
  • failure to report to work, even in the case of sickness;

Soviet labour regulations clearly stipulate that, in the event of sickness, if the camp's entire allowance of sick days has been used up, an individual prisoner's sickness does not entitle him to time off.

  • falling asleep during an indoctrination meeting;
  • talking in a language other than Russian;
  • being in posession of banned literature, i.e. Bible excerpts or a prayer book;
  • praying openly.

This is a brief and concise picture of the living and labour conditions of Polish political prisoners in the USSR whose only "crime" was the love of their Country and the Faith of their forefathers. Many of them served their terms in prison and labour camps, and were later sentenced to compulsory resettlement, often somewhere in the Polar regions, with no right to ever return to their country.

2. The Polish Ethnic Minority in the USSR
 
There are approximately 2,275,000 people of Polish nationality in the Soviet Union. Due to their dispersal, the Polish people have no autonomous territory of their own. Because of this fact, they are being discriminated against by all levels of the Soviet State administration, both within individual republics and by central government authorities. Discrimination against the Polish minority is indicated by the fact that the Soviet government refuses to establish a Polish Union Association in the USSR, i.e. an institution which would defend the Polish minority from discrimination.
 
The Polish minority in the USSR is the outcome of the Treaty of Riga concluded by Poland and the USSR on March 18, 1921. In confirming the boundaries between Poland and the USSR, the treaty left about 630,000 persons of Polish nationality in the Soviet Union. In accordance with Paragraph 8 of the above mentioned treaty, the Soviet Union promised to grant the Polish minority full rights as far as Polish culture, education and religious freedoms are concerned. Although the treaty was legally binding in the international sense, since it had been ratified by the appropriate authorities of both trating parties, the Soviet government, already in 1925, repudiated all its duties under Paragraph 8. Those from among the Polish minority groups who tried to defend their rights were resettled to Siberia or to the Soviet Asian interior. As a result of the Second World War, when the Western Powers accorded Poland's eastern territories to the USSR, over 4 million persons of Polish nationality remained there.
 
Until 1959, approximately 794,400 persons left the USSR, 219,300 were unaccounted for, 16,000 were murdered, 615,800 died before 1981 and the remainder, i.e. 2.3 million people, are until this very day living in the Soviet Union. Polish minority groups are dispersed throughout the USSR as follows:
  1. Byelorussian Republic..............................600,000
  2. Ukrainian Republic..............................500,000
  3. Lithuanian Republic..............................350,000
  4. Russian Republic..............................300,000
  5. Latvian Republic..............................100,000
  6. Kazakh Republic..............................100,000
  7. Moldavian Republic...............................10,000
  8. other Asian Soviet Republics.............................148,000
  9. in prisons, labour camps and forced resttlement...........................167,094

Total = 2,275,094

As far as official Soviet statistics are concerned, we must realize that they are incorrect and highly untrustworthy. According to Soviet statistics for 1959, 1,380,282 Polish nationals were living in the Soviet Union, while the Soviet census of 1979 reports 1,150,000 Polish persons. This is a decline of over 15%. At the same time, the same Soviet  statistical figures show a marked increase in the populations of other nationalities. Apart from this alarming fact, it should be noted that many localities formerly inhabited by Polish nationals both in Byelorussia and the Ukraine are registered in the census as being inhabited only by Byelorussians or Ukrainians. Similarly, the 10,000 Poles living in the Moldavian Republic somehow vanished between the census of 1959 and the census of 1970. The same applies to official statistics referring to people of Polish origin in Minsk.

The conditions of the Polish ethnic minority in the USSR:

The Polish people who presently live in the USSR are one of the most discriminated against national minorities, mainly because they differ in religion, and, consequently, in their culture. Their situation is aggravated by the fact that they have no right to unite in association within the individual republics nor within the Soviet Union as such, and are thus defenceless in the face of discrimination and mistreatment by the Soviet state administration. This is in contradiction to international laws of which the Soviet government is a signatory, in contradiction to any generally accepted human rights, and in contradiction to the 1977 Soviet Constitution. We shall try to explain the latter.

The problem of national language education:

Article 34, Chapter 6 of the present Soviet Constitution states the following: "All Soviet citizens have the right to attend schools in which the official language is the language of their nationality, up to university level." In practice, however, the Soviet State administration created a situation entirely opposed to its Constitution as far as these things are concerned, especially towards the Polish national minority. To prove the point, the following facts may be quoted:

In 1925, the Polish ethnic minority of about 350,000 people in the Byelorussian Republic had 145 elementary schools, 235 teachers, and a teachers' college in Minsk with 126 students and 22 teachers. There are over 600,000 Poles in the Byelorussian Republic at present, and there is not a single Polish school and no teachers' college. For the over 2 million Poles currently living in the Soviet Union, there are 35 Polish elementary schools and one high school in the Lithuanian Republic. The ratio of schools to the number of ethnic minorities clearly proves that the Polish national group in the USSR is definitely discriminated against. As additional proof, it may be added that Polish school textbooks brought by private persons from Poland or other countries, have for years been confiscated at the border by Soviet customs officials.

Polish culture in the USSR:

Article 36, Chapter 6 of the present Soviet Constitution states the following: "Soviet citizens of various races and nationalities have equal rights. These rights should be applied through the right of assembly of all nationalities inhabiting the USSR, so that all citizens are made aware of the Soviet patriotic spirit through the use of their national language. Any direct or indirect restriction of civic rights, or any granting of priviledges to another group on the basis or race or nationality is punished by law."

Contrary to the Constitution, the Soviet State adminstration clearly discriminates against Polish language and culture in its practices. As proof of this statement the following facts may be quoted: in 1925, two Polish language daily newspapers were published in the Byelorussian Republic. The present Polish population of that republic is at least 70% larger, yet there is not a single Polish language daily or weekly and there are no Polish radio or television programs. For the approximately 2.3 million persons of the Polish ethnic minority there is only one Polish language daily newspaper published in the Lithuanian Republic. However, that daily, as is the case with any other cultural or educational institution under State management, does not express the true aspirations of the Polish ethnic minority in the Soviet Union.

One of the basic elements of the maintenance and development of national culture is publishing and a network of libraries, which enable a citizen of a given nationality to keep in touch with cultural creativity in a general sense. In this field, the situation is simply tragic. Polish books are not available for the Polish ethnic minority because these are under the management of State administration. Because of State censorship, not a single book has been published for years and, moreover, all Polish publications carried by Polish persons from Poland to the USSR are being confiscated at the border by Soviet customs officials. We should compare the number of books published in the languages of other ethnic minorities to illustrate the extent of discrimination against the Polish minority.

Aside from the previously mentioned aspects that bear an influence on the maintenance and development of culture - there is the theatre which, as far as the Polish minority is concerned, does not exist in the USSR. In this situation, the Polish minority in the USSR can draw information about their national culture from state-controlled newspapers, books, theatre and films, which are all filled with a spirit of degredation and discrimination.

Religion in the USSR:

Article 52, Chapter 7, of the present Soviet Constitution states the following: "All Soviet citizens have a guaranteed freedom of conscience, freedom of exercising any religion, and of participation in any rites. It is stricty forbidden to incite against or be hostile towards religion."

The problem of Christian religions especially, is an example of the most blatant discrimination by Soviet State authorities against people of faith. This applies particularly to the Roman-Catholic Church, to which 95% of the Polish ethnic minority in the USSR belong. The persecution of the Roman-Catholic Church by the Soviet government administration is a problem of such gravity and dimensions, that it is being dealt with in a separate chapter in this publication. It should be emphasized, that the State administration practices applied to religion, and specially to the Roman-Catholic Church, are in direct contradiction to the Soviet Constitution. The following facts are a proof of it: The Polish ethnic minority is 95% Roman-Catholic. In 1915, this territory had 7 dioceses, one archdiocese, theological seminaries and 1,000 parishes, including 40 parishes in Siberia with 39 priests. The whole Soviet territory now has about 30 churches and chapels attended by priests whose average age is 65. Each of those priests spent an average of 40% of his vocational life in prison, and in 95% of cases the prison sentence was imposed under administrative Soviet government procedure and not through the courts. This fact alone is sufficient proof to what extent the Polish ethnic minority is persecuted in the USSR.

Social discrimination of the Polish ethnic minority in the USSR:

Speaking generally on the subject of discrimination of the Polish ethnic minority in the USSR, it must be stressed that discrimination does not only comprise the maintenance and development of Polish culture, but also includes social discrimination, for which the following examples may be supplied:

Ethnic Poles are being pushed down to the bottom of social life, and are being employed in the most arduous tasks, mainly in agriculture, mining and forestry. Young people of Polish origin are discriminated against and banned from higher education. According to evidence which reached the West from Soviet academic circles, we know that special unwritten regulations were issued in the 1970s, to the effect that Jews and Poles be banned from admission to universities. This information is confirmed by official Soviet statistics from the last census, where each nationality is matched with a percentage of persons with higher education. There is no such information with regards to the Polish group. According to official university statistics for the 1970s, Russian nationals had 53 people per 1,000 attending universities, Lithuanian nationals 34 per 1,000 while Poles had only 9 per thousand.

3. The Roman-Catholic Church in the USSR
 
Polish people living in the Soviet Union are 95% Roman-Catholic, and are the largest unit of that church. While taking into account the Roman-Catholic Church in the Soviet Union, we are excluding here the Baltic States, ie. Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
 
Before the 1917 revolution, the Roman-Catholic Church of Russia had the right of liturgical rites, freedom of worship, and had its own church administration. The whole territory was divided into 8 dioceses and had theological seminaries. In spite of these apparent priviledges, the Roman-Catholic Church of that time was subjected to strict government control, which was expressed by sporadic refusals of permission to build churches and police control over the activities of all levels of Church hierarchy or religious communities.
 
In 1921, when Poland and the USSR drew the new frontiers during the Treaty of Riga, the Soviet Union gave a guarantee of free cultural development, education, freedom of faith and religious institutions for the 630,000 Polish national minority left behind within Soviet borders. In 1925, 4 years after the Treaty of Riga had been signed, the Soviet authorities established a policy of gradual liquidation of the Roman-Catholic Church. The most brutal methods were used, such as arrests of all the Church hierarchy, with the result that many of its members were executed and the remainder died in labour camps. The entire Church organization, such as dioceses or parishes, had been liquidated, churches were closed or destroyed, and the believers, who dared to oppose such methods, were deported to Siberia.
 
At the end of World War Two, some 4 million Poles of Roman-Catholic faith found themselves inside Soviet Russia as the result of wartime deportations or of the Soviet acquisition of Poland's eastern provinces. Of that number, taking into consideration the repatriation to Poland and the number of deaths, about 2.3 million Poles are still in the Soviet Union. Blackmail and discrimination against Catholics in the USSR are the result of both the Soviet authorities' atheistic program and of the fact that Catholics are representing a different culture. To illustrate the present situation of the Roman-Catholic Church in the Soviet Union, a few facts may be given:
  1. None of the existing dioceses has been reinstated. Of the over 1,000 parishes only about 30 churches and chapels are left open as a result of the Soviet authorities' direct intervention;
  2. In spite of the legal division between Church and State in accordance with the Soviet Constitution, the remaining parishes are controlled by government commissars, while the property of the Roman-Catholic Church and its communities is confiscated by Soviet authorities;
  3. Commissars for religious affairs have the power of a bishop to arbitrarily shut a church, confirm the appointment of a priest or of a parish committee. A commissar for religious affairs is also responsible before the authorities in properly applying the "New Law" which demands that each priest obtains the authorities' consent for conducting public worship. According to this law, consent may be granted only to a priest who graduated from a theological seminary in the USSR where, as we know, such seminaries do not exist;
  4. These methods led to an incredible shortage of priests. For example, the Byelorussian Republic had 345 priests in 1945, while the number is now reduced to 30, with an average age of 65 years;
  5. If they wish to receive holy sacrament, residents of the Asian provinces of the USSR must travel to their nearest parish in Odessa - a distance of a few thousand kilometres;
  6. Common prayer is allowed only in an official place of worship, i.e. in a church or cemetary. Both these places can be closed by the authorities without giving a reason for it. A few churches were closed or turned into atheist exhibitions in such large Catholic centres as Minsk and Zhitomir, and the people left with only cemetaries to pray in. Their repeated petitions for the re-opening of at least a few churches have for years been disregarded by the authorities. Gathering for prayer in private homes, on the other hand, is illegal and punishable by deportation to labour camps;
  7. Parish committees must pay fire insurance on church buildings to a state insurance institution. In case of fire, the state receives the insurance for a destroyed church, while the parish may or may not obtain a permit for the construction of a new church;
  8. Religious education and church attendance is legally permitted only for those over 18 years of age. Rev. Bernard Mickiewicz was a few years ago sentenced to 8 years of labour camp for teaching religion to Polish children at their parents' request;
  9. Priests who voluntarily apply in Poland for vacant parishes in the Soviet Union meet with the refusal of both local authorities and Soviet ministry officials;
  10. In the parish of Cheladz in Byelorussia, Catholics have been waiting since 1946 for the official approval of a priest, despite their repeated applications and protests;
  11. In the parish of Braslav, the death of a priest in 1978 served as an official excuse for closing the church. Protests by the local population have forced the authorities to re-open the church, yet a new priest had not been appointed.

All of the above mentioned cases have been confirmed. Instances of ill-treatment and discrimination against the Roman-Catholic Church in the Soviet Union can be quoted at length.

The conditions in which nationalities of Roman-Catholic faith are forced to live in the USSR call for a strong protest. The methods used by Soviet authorities are a brutal violation of the United Nations Charter on human rights, of the Helsinki Agreement, or of any generally accepted norms of human dignity. The Catholic Church in the Soviet Union is definitely discriminated against when compared to the Russian Orthodox Church, which is entitled to its own administration and has theological seminaries.

......................................................................................................................

Sources of Information:

  1. Radio Free Europe publications
  2. The Polish People's Republic publications
  3. Polish Armed Forces, Vol. III, 1965 edition
  4. Winston Churchill's memoirs
  5. Forced Labour Concentration Camps and Psychiatric Prisons of the USSR, Research Centre for Prisons, Israel, 1980

NOTE: As this booklet is a rough translation from the original Polish, the transcription above has been slightly edited for clarity. The booklet was produced by the Polish Ex-Combatants Association - Free World Polonia, Co-ordinating Council, 240 King Street, London, England.