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Anna Usowicz
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Statistics and Tidbits of Various Kinds
On This Page:
  • 1. Polish Census of 1931
  • 2. Counties of the former provinces of eastern Poland
  • 3. Ancient Polish Tribes 
  • 4. Polish Losses Due to WW2  
  • 5. Poland 1796 - 1919
  • 6. Polish Military Ranks
  • 7. Military Dictionary (English-Polish and Polish-English)
  • 8. Polish Second Corps Units, April 30, 1945
  • 9. Polish 2nd Corps Timeline
  • 10. The Germans and Soviets Invade
  • 11. Deported to the Soviet Union
  • 12. The Polish 2nd Corps in Italy
  • 13. Communist Polish Army in the Soviet Union
  • 14. The 2nd Corps Women's Auxiliary 
  • 15. Quotes from The Gulag Archipelago

Total Population of Poland: 32,132,936
Ethnic Poles made up 69.10 % of that figure or 22,051,813 people. By comparison, Rumania contained 72% Rumanians while the Soviet Union was only 53% Russian. On the other hand, Germany was composed of 98% Germans.
[ One 1939 estimate was a population of 35,000,000 with 24,000,000 ethnic Poles.]
The 7 Eastern (Kresy) Provinces of Poland were Wilno, Nowogrodek, Volhynia (Wolyn),  and Polesia in the north, formerly occupied by the Russian Empire and Lwow, Stanislawow and Tarnopol in the south, formerly occupied by the Hapsburg Monarchy (aka the Austro-Hungarian Empire).
Wojewodzstwo = Voivodship = Palatinate = Province
Total Population of the Kresy Provinces: 11,758,000
Poles:  4,751,900 or 40.40 %
Ukrainians and Ruthenians: 4,297,900 or 36.60 %
White Ruthenians: 781,200 or 6.60 % 
Russians: 90,800 or 0.80 %
Lithuanians: 80,000 or 0.70 %
Germans: 80,000 or 0.70 %
Czechs (in Volhynia): 30,000 or 0.30 %
Jews: 925,600 or 7.90 %
"Natives" of Undefined Nationality (in Polesia): 707,100 or 6.10%
Geografia gives countrywide figures of 1,500,000 White Ruthenians (White Russians) and 765,000 Germans.
Curious about the "Natives" in Polesia? "Polesia preserves archaic dialects which, though related to the White Ruthenian and Ukrainian speeches, do not belong to either one of them... The inhabitants are divided into a large number of small, entirely separated local groups, differing sharply from each other and having little mutual intercourse...  (and are) without any national conciousness. " They purposefully evaded direct questions of nationality and language during the census.
Curious about the difference between Ruthenians and Ukrainians? "This population speaks, apart from dialectical differences, the same language, but only a part of it desires to call this language 'Ukrainian' and thus to profess its Ukrainian nationality. The rest, suspecting the term 'Ukrainian' to convey a political tendency towards Ukrainian nationalism, and disagreeing with the latter's political tenets, prefers to call its mother-tongue Ruthenian according to century-old usage, as opposed to Russian. The state authorities, including both terms in the census-forms, acted therefore in accordance with the desires of the population. Both terms refer nevertheless to the same language, merely reflecting the different attitudes of certain sections of the population to purely political problems." The Ruthenians account for 1,219,600 inhabitants out of the total combined Ukrainian/Ruthenian number.
Ethnic Poles in the Kresy regions made up as much as 84.3 % of the population of a county to as little as 5.2%! 
Roman Catholics: 3,955,500 or 33.60 %
Greek Catholics or Uniates: 3,272,000 or 27.80 %
Greek Orthodox: 3,210,000 or 27.30 %
Protestants: 93,000 or 0.80 %
Other Christian Denominations: 79,300 or 0.70 %
Jews: 1,131,700 or 9.70 %
Other Non Christian* (mostly Muslim): 16,000 or 0.10 %
*The muslim population, known as "Tatarzy" or Tartars, ancient enemies of Poland and Eastern Europe, were concentrated in Wilno province and were the descendants of long ago prisoners of war. There were also "Karaimi" or Karaites from the Crimea who wandered into the area at some point in time. Finally, scattered throughout the country were "Cyganie" or Gypsies (also known as "Roma")
Race and Religion:
Ethnic Poles: Mostly Roman Catholic but 465,000 Poles (in "Red Ruthenia") were Uniate; 70,000 (dispersed throughout the region) were Orthodox; several thousand were other, mostly Protestant.
Lithuanians: Almost all were Roman Catholics.
Russians: Orthodox.
"Natives" of Polesia: Orthodox
Jews: Mosaic
White Ruthenians: Mostly Orthodox but 155,000 were Roman Catholic.
Ukrainians: 60% were Uniates, 39% were Orthodox and the remaining 1% were divided among the other Christian faiths.
2. Counties of Pre-WW2 Poland (also known as districts):
Wilno                                                  Nowogrodek
braslawski                                           baranowicki
dzisnienski                                          lidzki
molodecki                                            nieswieski
oszmianski                                          nowogrodzki
postawski                                            slonimski
swiecianski                                          stolpecki
wilejski                                                szczuczynski
wilenski grodzki                                    wolozynski
Polesie                                                Wolyn (Volhynia)
brzeski                                                dubienski
drohicki                                                horochowski
kobrynski                                             kostopolski
kosowski                                              kowelski
koszyrski                                             krzemieniecki
luniniecki                                              lubomelski
pinski                                                   lucki
pruzanski                                             rowienski
stolinski                                               sarnenski
Lwow                                                   Stanislawow
bobrecki                                               dolinski
brzozowski                                           horodenski
dobromilski                                           kaluski
drohobycki                                            kolomyjski
grodecki                                                nadwornianski
jaroslawski                                            rohatynski
kolbuszowski                                        stanislawowski
krosnienski                                           stryjski
leski                                                     sniatynski
lubaczowski                                          tlumacki
lwowski grodzki                                     zydaczowski
lancucki                                                Tarnopol
mosciski                                               borszczowski
nizanski                                                brodzki
przemyski                                             brzezanski
przeworski                                             buczacki
rawski                                                   czortkowski
rudecki                                                  kamionecki
rzeszowski                                            kopyczyniecki
samborski                                             podhajecki
sanocki                                                 przemyslanski
sokalski                                                radziechowski
tarnobrzeski                                          skalacki
turczanski                                             tarnopolski
zolkiewski                                             trembowelski
1) Eastern Poland, edited by The Polish Research Centre, London, England, first published in December, 1941.
2) Geografia Dla IV Klasy Gimnazjalnej, Prof. Stanislaw Pawlowski (who perished at the hands of the Nazis in Dachau concentration camp in 1940), taken from the high school textbook edition as produced in Jerusalem in 1943.
3. Ancient Polish Tribes
On a 2nd century A.D. map of the Roman Empire, Poland does not exist as a state. The names of places and of tribes are in Latin. The only town marked on this map in the area of today's Poland is Calisia (Kalisz). Other region names noted on the map in the area of Poland are Venedae, Samartia and Bastarnae with the tribes (Gotones), Aestiii, Burgunti, Vandali, Cotini, and Coistoboci.
A Polish 10th century map of Slavic tribes in north-eastern Europe shows what would become today's Poland as "Plemiona Lechickie," or Western Slavonic Tribes. The two main sub-groups were the Polabianie in the northwest (as far west as Hamburg) and the Polacy in the bulk of the region.
The tribes listed on that map are as follows:
West of the Odra (Oder) River
East of the Odra (Oder) River
South of the Warta River
In the Wisla (Vistula) River Basin (North to South)
  Chorwaci (Przemysl area)
In a small school historical atlas from the 1980s (ISBN 83-7000-051-7) only the main tribes are labelled at the time of Boleslaw Chrobry (992-1025):
Pomorzanie in the northwest (e.g. Kolobrzeg and Szczecin)
Luzyce in central Poland, west of the Oder River (e.g. Budziszyn)
Polanie in the centre of Poland (e.g. Kalisz, Gniezno)
Mazowszanie in east-central Poland (e.g. Plock)
Slezanie in southwest Poland (e.g. Wroclaw, Opole)
Wislanie, south-central Poland (e.g. Krakow)
Ledzianie, southeast Poland (e.g. Lublin)
Poland's borders waxed and waned over the centuries (as was typical of kingdoms around the world). By the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had expanded tremendously and, throughout the 14th to 16th centuries, formed a loose association with Poland. In 1569 the union was formalized into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which was the largest European nation for centuries until dismantled by neighbouring states in the late 18th century.
In Total (Due to both German and Soviet Agression)
  • Six Million Polish Citizens were killed (three million Jews and three million Christians of which over 2 million were ethnic Poles with the remainder being members of the various minorities) or about 17% of Poland's pre-war population. All but some 600,000 were civilians. Jewish losses were in the 79-85% range.
  • Of the six million, 664,000 were battlefield deaths. 
  • 800,000 Polish citizens became invalids.
  • 30,000 developed various psychiatric disorders (not counting the many who lived with simple bitterness, depression, apathy or nightmares).

Non-Polish Nationals Brought to Poland by the Nazis (Many for Extermination)

  • Gypsies from Germany and German occupied territories,
  • 784,000 Soviet POWs,
  • 22,000 Italian POWs who would not swear allegiance either to Hitler or Mussolini,
  • Tens of thousands POWs from France, Great Britain, U.S.A., etc.,
  • 93 Czech children from the obliterated town of Lidice who were gassed in Chelmno,
  • 4,000 psychiatric patients from Germany,
  • One million Jews from other European countries.

In all, about two million persons from 29 countries belonging to 50 different nationalities were also exterminated on Polish soil.

__________________________________________________________________Poland's Holocaust, Tadeusz Piotrowski, 1998

5. Poland 1796 to 1919:
Poland's glorious past is not well known:
  • For over 800 years prior to the partitions of the 18th Century, Poland existed as a sovereign country in the form of a tolerant, multi-ethnic Commonwealth, with a rich legal tradition.
  • For 400 years, 1386-1795, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was Europe's largest political nation of free citizens.
  • For 300 years, the largest territory in Europe.
  • Completely absent from the map of Europe for 60 years.
Three partitions of Poland:
First - 1772 - 30 % of the country's land area. Galicia to Austria, Pomerania to Prussia, Eastern lands to Russia.
Second - 1793 - more of Eastern Poland to Russia and most of Western Poland together with Danzig and Thorn to Prussia.
Third - 1795-96 - Poland erased from the map of Europe.
Grand Duchy of Warsaw:
1807-14 - A temporary kingdom centered on Warsaw, restored to Poland by Napoleon but dissolved following his defeat by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Kingdom of Poland was established at that time but it was given to the Russian Tsar to rule in perpetuity and soon all autonomy was lost.
Polish population, in what had been Poland, at the time of the final partition in 1795-96:
-approx. 15,000,000 persons (9,000,000 under the Russians, 3,500,000 under the Prussians, 2,500,000 under the Austrians).
-total duration of subjugation: 123 years
Austria: Left the Poles alone.
Prussia: Left the Poles alone until 1886 when a program of de-Polonization began.
Russia: Treated the Poles poorly from the start. Uprisings against Russian oppression occured in 1830, 1846 (minor) and 1863-64. Russian reprisals were brutal. In 1864, the Russians decided to impose a program of Russification upon the Poles. The Polish language was replaced by the Russian language and the Poles were kept in line by censorship, police and spies.
Many Poles moved around within the occupied lands, mostly to Prussia and Silesia where life was better.
Many more emigrated beyond the former Polish territory, some to Denmark, Switzerland and Belgium, larger numbers to Brazil and France but most to the United States of America. Between the years 1870 and 1914 almost two million Poles settled in the United States (600,000 from Prussia, 595,000 from Austrian Galicia and 750,000 from Russia).   
World War One:
Poles in the Russian army: 600,000 reservists; conscription would add more.
Poles in the German army: 200,000 reservists; conscription would add more.
Poles in the Austrian army: by 1916, a total of 12,000 men in 3 Polish Legion Brigades under Geberal Pilsudski's command (Austrian Poles in the 1st and 2nd brigades; Russian Poles in the 3rd brigade).
The Situation in Poland in late 1918:
  • Boundaries with neighbours have not been settled.
  • Border wars on three fronts (against the Ukrainian nationalists near Lwow, against the Czechs in Teschen and against the Germans in Poznania). 
  • Seven different currencies in circulation.
  • Four different legal systems operating.
  • A tenuous hold of power by Pilsudski with many rivals in competition with him and each other for the job of running the country. 
  • Bureaucrats from the three defunct empires disorganized and spreading confusion, the Polish governmental machinery in a primitive state.  
  • Projected deficit for the first 6 months of 1919 of almost 2 billion Polish marks.
  • Industrial property either looted or demolished during the war, industry at a standstill; 85% of industrial workers unemployed.
  • Three incompatible railway systems in existence with half of the rolling stock, bridges and workshops destroyed by war.
  • Six million acres of forest had been cut during the war to provide for supports for the trenches.
  • More than a third of the livestock gone, appropriated, together with most other goods and food stuffs, by occupying armies.
  • More than half of the agricultural acreage left uncultivated.
  • 700,000 Poles driven eastward into Russia by the German offensive of 1915.
  • Nearly 500,000 Poles killed in action while fighting for the Russian, German or Austrian armies with 1,000,000 wounded.
  • Hunger and diseases such as Spanish flu and typhus raging throughout the land.
  • Rampant lawlessness and crime perpetrated by deserters, common criminals and refugees in the presence of a power vacuum. 

Polish Soldier of World War One
Zygmunt Kralisz in 1916

(British Equivalents)
Polish alphabet has not been used
Polish Army Rank       Abbreviation          Equivalent
szeregowiec               szer.                      private
strzelec                        strz.                       rifleman
dragon                         drag.                     dragoon
ulan                              ul.                          lancer
saper                           sap.                       sapper
kanonier                      kan.                       gunner
grenadier                    gren.                      grenadier
starszy szeregowiec   st.szer.                   lance corporal
starszy strzelec            st.strz.                    "
starszy dragon             st. drag.                 "
starszy ulan                  st.ul.                        "
starszy saper                         "
bombardier                  bomb.                    "
starszy grenadier        st.gren.                   "
kapral                          kapr.                      corporal
plutonowy                    plut.                       lance sergeant
sierzant                        sierz.                     sergeant
wachmistrz                  wachm.                  sergeant of horse
ogniomistrz                 ognm.                    sergeant of artillery
starszy sierzant             st.sierz.                 staff sergeant
starszy wachmistrz       st.wachm.             "
starszy ogniomistrz      st.ognm.                "
chorazy                          chor.                       warrant officer
aspirant                          asp.                       aspirant
podporucznik                 ppor.                     2nd lieutenant
porucznik                      por.                      lieutenant
kapitan                          kpt.                      capitan
rotmistrz                        rtm.                      captain of horse
major                             mjr.                      major
podpulkownik               pplk.                    lieutenant colonel
pulkownik                      plk.                      colonel
general brygady           gen.bryg.             major general
general dywizji              gen.dyw.             lieutenant general
general broni                gen.broni             general
marszalek                     marsz.                  marshal
podchorazy                   pchor.                  officer cadet
Polish Navy Rank          Abbreviation        Equivalent
                                                                  (Royal Navy)
marynarz                        mar.                     ordinary seaman
starszy marynarz           st.mar.                 able-bodied
mat                                 mat                      leading seaman
starszy mat                    st.mat                  senior leading
bosmanmat                   bosmanmat          petty officer
                                                                      2nd class
bosman                          bosman                petty officer
                                                                      1st class
starszy bosman             st. bosman          chief petty officer
chorazy marynarki         chor.mar.             warrant officer
podporucznik marynarki  ppor.mar.            sub-lieutenant
porucznik marynarki          por.mar.               lieutenant
kapitan marynarki             kpt.mar.                lieutenant
komandor podporucznik  kdr.ppor.              commander
komandor porucznik         kdr.por.                no equivalent
komandor                           kdr.                       captain RN
no equivalent                                                commodore
kontr-admiral                                                rear-admiral
wice-admiral                                                 vice-admiral
admiral                                                         admiral
no equivalent                                               admiral of the
Polish AF Rank        Abbrev.        RAF Rank 
szeregowiec            szer.              aircraftman class 2
starszy szeregowiec st.szer.        aircraftman class 1
kapral                        kpr.               leading aircraftman
plutonowy                 plut.               corporal
sierzant                    sierz.            sergeant
starszy sierzant       st.sierz.        flight sergeant
chorazy                    chor.             warrant officer
podporucznik           ppor.             pilot officer
porucznik                  por.               flying officer
kapitan                      kpt.               flight lieutenant
major                         mjr.               squadron leader
podulkownik             pplk.             wing commander
pulkownik                 plk.                group captain
no equivalent                                  air commodore
general brygady       gen.bryg.      air vice marshal
general dywizji         gen.dyw.       air marshal
general broni             air chief marshal
marszalek                                        marshal of the RAF
podchorazy               pchor.             officer cadet
From the "Polish Forces in Scotland during the Second World War" R. M. Ostrycharz (2001)

7. Selected Military Terminology (British Equivalents, 1943) Polish characters have not been used.
English - Polish
ack-ack fire - ogien przeciwlotnicze
action - dzialanie, akcja
 killed in action - polegly
active - czynny
 active service - sluzba czynna
adjutant - pomocnik, adiutant
aerodrome - lotnisko
aid post - punkt sanitarny
Aide-de-Camp - adiutant
aim - (noun) cel, zamiar (verb) celowac, dazyc
air attack - atak otniczy
air base - baza lotnicza
air cannon - dzialko samolotowe
air crew - zaloga samolotu
Air Force - sily powietrzne, lotnictwo
air gunner - strzelec samolotowy
air observation - obserwacja lotnicza
air observation point - samolot (obserwacyjny) artilerii
air observer - obserwator
air raid - nalot
air raid shelter - schron przeciwlotniczy
air reconnaissance - rozpoznanie lotnicze
air sortie - wypad lotniczy, lot
air superiority - przewaga w powietrzu
air support - wsparcie lotnicze
airborne troops - wojska powietrzne
aircraft - samolot
aircraft carrier - lotniskowiec
airfield - lotnisko
airman - lotnik
airplane - samolot
airport - port lotniczy, baza lotniczy
airship - sterowiec
airship shed - hangar balonowy
all clear! - koniec alarmu!
all out effort - pelny wysilek
alliance - przymierze
allied power - sprzymierzone mocarstwo
ally - sprzymierzeniec
ambulance - sanitarka, kompania sanitarna, szpital polowy
ambush - (noun) zasadzka, (verb) wciagnac w zasadzke
ammunition - amunicja
ammunition belt - tasma amunicyjna
ammunition dump - sklad amunicyjny (tymczasowy)
ammunition refilling point - osrodek zaopatrywania w amunicje
amphibious tank - czolg wodnoziemny (czolg-amfibia)
anti-aircraft - przeciwlotniczy
anti-aircraft artillery - artyleria przeciwlotnicza
anti-aircraft battery - dyon artylerii preciwlotniczej
ant-aircraft defense - obrona przciwlotnicza
anti-aircraft gun - dzialo przeciwlotnicze
anticipated losses - przewidywane straty
anti-gas defence - obrona przeciwgazowa
anti-tank - przeciwpancerny
anti-tank obstacle - przeszkoda przeciwpancerna
armament - uzbrojenie
armistice - zawieszenie broni
armour - pancerz
armour piercing shell - granat przeciwpancerny
armour plate - plyta pancerna
armoured - pancerny (e.g. armoured division - dywizja pancerna)
army - armia
 land army - wojska ladowe
artillery - artyleria
artillery fire - ogien artyleryjski
artillery preparation - przygotowanie artyleryjskie
 spotting plane - samolot zwiadowczy artylerii
artillery support - wsparcie artyleryjskie
 close support artillery - artyleria bezposredniego wsparcia
 field (light) artillery - artyleria lekka
 heavy artillery - *artyleria ciezka
 horse artillery - artyleria konna
 medium artillery - artyleria srednich kalibrow
 superheavy artillery - artyleria najciezsza
* note: In the British Royal Artillery, the term "heavy" (and "heavy siege") refers to guns in the 210 to 420 mm range of caliber. The term "medium" refers to guns of caliber 4.5 to 5.5 inches which in the Polish Army had been categorized as "heavy." Thus you may find that English accounts of Polish artillery may refer to "medium" regiments while the corresponding Polish translation will refer to the same units as "heavy."
artilleryman - artylerzysta
assault - (noun) napad, szturm, wypad (verb) szturmowac, atakowac
assault boat - lodz szturmowa
assault troops - oddzialy szturmowe
at instant readiness - w ostrym pogotowiu
attack - atak, uderzenie, natarcie
badge - odznaka
barbed wire - drut kolczasty
barracks - koszary
barrage - zapora (stala i ruchoma)
 artillery barrage - ogien zaporowy
bath unit - oddzial kapielowy (laznia polowa)
batman - ordynans
battalion - batalion
battery - bateria (electrical)
battery - dywizjon (light and heavy artillery)
battery - bateria (super heavy and coastal artillery)
battle - (noun) bitwa, boj; (verb) walczyc
battle cruiser - krazownik liniowy
battledress - mundur polowy
battlefield - pole walki, pole walki
battleship - okret liniowy, pancernik
bayonet - bagnet
bivouac - biwak
bomb - (noun) bomba; (verb) bombardowac
bomb aimer - bombardier
 delayed-action bomb - bomba z opoznionym zapalnikiem
 flash bomb - bomba oswietlajaca
 fragmentation bomb - bomba odlamkowa
 incendiary bomb - bomba zapalajaca
 smoke bomb - bomba dymna
bombard - bombardowac (by aircraft)
bombard - ostrzeliwac (by artillery)
bombardment - bombardowanie (by aircraft)
bombardment - ostrzeliwanie (by artillery)
booby-trap - pulapka minowa na sily zywe (pulapka for short)
breech - zamek (of a gun)
breech loaded ammuntion - amunicja podzielna
Bren gun - lekki karabin maszynowy typu "Bren"
brigade - brygada
 armoured brigade - brygada pancerna
bullet - pocisk malokalibrowy, kulka (szrapnela)
calibre - kaliber
camouflage - (noun) maskowanie; (verb) maskowac
comouflage netting - siatka malowana
cannon - dzialo
canteen - kantyna
 mobile canteen - kantyna ruchoma
capital punishment - kara smierci
capital ship - okret liniowy
captivity - niewola
carbine - karabinek
carrier pigeon - golab pocztowy
 aircraft carrier - lotniskowiec
cartridge - naboj
cartridge blank - naboj slepy
 quick firing cartridge - naboj do broni szybkostrzelnej
 tracer cartridge - naboj smugowy
casualties in killed and wounded - straty w zabitych i rannych
casualty - strata (nie tylko z powodu smierci lub ran, lecz takze z powodu choroby, odparzen itp.)
casualty list - lista strat
Catering Corps - korpus kucharzy
caterpillar - gasienica ( e.g. tank tread )
cavalry - kawaleria
 mechanized cavalry - kawaleria zmotoryzowana
cavalryman - kawalerzysta
cease fire! - przerwij ogien!
Chaplain to the Forces - kapelan wojskowy
charge - ladunek (explosive)
charge - szarza (attack)
 cavalry charge - szarza kawaleryjska
charger - wojskowy kon wierzchowy
Chief - szef, naczelnik
cipher - (noun) szyfr, cyfra, liczba; (verb) szyfrowac
colours - sztandar, bandera, choragiew
combat - (noun) walka, potyczka, boj; (verb) walczyc, zwalczac
combatant - zolnierz 
command - komenda, rozkaz, dowodztwo
command post - stanowisko dowodztwa
Commander - dowodca, komendant
Commanding Officer - oficer dowodzacy, dowodca
company - kompania
compulsory military service - przymusowa sluzba wojskowa
conceal the movement of troops - ukryc ruchy   oddzialow
convergent fire - ogien zbiezny
cordite - kordyt, nitroglicerynowy proch bezdymny
corpse - trup
corvette - korweta
courier - kurier
cover a retreat - oslaniac odwrot
crew - obsluga, zaloga
cruiser - krazownik
dagger - kordzik, sztylet
decipher - odszyfrowac, odcyfrowac
defeat - (noun) porazka, kleska; (verb) pokonac, zniweczyc, porazic, udaremnic
defence - obrona
defence in depth - obrona w glab
 static defence - obrona stala
defenceless - bezbronny
defend - bronic, strzec, stawac w odbronie
defiladed zone - pole martwe
delaying action - dzialanie opozniajace
demobilization - demobilizacja
Demolition Squad - oddzial burzacy
deploy - rozwinac (sie)
deployment - rozwiniecie do walki
deserter - zbieg
despatch - (noun) meldunek, rozkaz, wysylka
desperate fight - rozpaczliwa walka
destroyer - niszczyciel, kontrtorpedowiec
detachment - oddzial
detonating fuse - lont wybuchowy
detonation - wybuch, detonajca
detonator - splonka pobudzajaca
disarm - rozbroic
dismounted cavalry - spieszona kawaleria
dive-bomber - nurkowiec
dodger - dekownik
dreadnought - pancernik
dud - niewypal, niewybuch
dug-out - schron ziemny, ziemianka
dysentery - biegunka
enemy - nieprzyaciel
engage the enemy - zwiazac sie z nieprzyjacielem
engineer - mechanik, saper
epaulette - naramiennik, epolet
exhaust all ammunition supplies - wyczerpac wszystkie zapasy amunicji
expanding bullet - pocisk dum-dum
expect reinforcements - oczekiwac posilkow
explosive charge - ladunek wybuchowy
exterminate attacking unit - wyciac w pien nacierajaca jednostke
fatally injured - ciezko ranny
feigned attack - natarcie pozorowane
Field Cash - kasa polowa
field dressing station - polowa stacja opatrunkowa
Field Mass - msza polowa
field of fire - pole ostrzalu
field of sight - pole widzenia
fighter - bojownik, zolnierz
fighter aircraft - samolot mysliwski
fighter squadron - dyon mysliwski
fighter interceptor - samolot mysliwski do przychwytywania
fighting echelon - komora bojowa
fighting group - rzut walczacy
fighting one's way into a position - wywalczajac sobie droge w glab pozycji
fire - ogien
 fire power - sila ogniowa
 accurate fire - ogien celny
 cease fire ! - przerwij ogien !
 continuous fire - ogien ciagly
 convergent fire - ogien zbiezny
 covering fire - ogien wsparcia (torujacy i oslaniajacy)
 curtain fire - ogien zaporowy (obserwowany)
 curtain of fire - zaslona ogniowa
 defensive fire - ogien obrony (ogni zapobiegawczych i wstrzymujacych)
 destructive fire - ogien niszczacy
 desultory fire - ogien nekajacy
 direct fire - ogien besposredni
 direction of fire - kierunek ognia
 effective fire - ogien skuteczny
 enfilade fire - ogien podluzny
 flanking fire - ogien boczny
 frontal fire - ogien czolowy
 grazing fire - ogien koszacy
 harassing fire - ogien wzbraniajacy
 indirect fire - ogien posredni
 ineffective fire - ogien nieskuteczny
 neutralizing fire - ogien obezwladniajacy
 observed fire - ogien z obserwacji
 overhead fire - ogien ponad glowami
 point-blank fire - ogien na odleglosci szturmowe
 rapid fire - ogien gwaltowny
 rate of fire - nasilenie ognia
 slackening of fire - oslabienie ognia
firing - strzelanie, odpalenie
 firing in bursts - strzelanie seriami
 firing pin - iglica
fit for military service - nadajacy sie (zdolny) do sluzby wojskowej
flak - ogien niemieckiej obrony przeciwlotniczy
flame thrower - miotacz ognia
flanking movement - manewr oskrzydlajacy
flash - (noun) blysk
 flash bomb - bomba blyskowa
 flash spotting group (artillery) - pluton pomiarowy wzrokowy
fleet (navy) - flota
fleeting-opportunity targets - cele przemijajace
flesh wound - rana otwarta
flexible defense - obrona gietka
foe - wrog, nieprzyjaciel
foot patrol - patrol pieszy
forward ! - naprzod !
forward area - strefa wysunieta, strefa walki
fragments - odlamki (pocisku)
freedom of action - swoboda dzialania
frontal attack - uderzenie od czola (czolowe)
full dress - mundur galowy
full gallop - cwal
furlough - przepustka
fuse - bezpiecznik (topikowy)
fuze - zapalnik, lont
 delayed-action fuze - zapalnik z zwloka
 direct-action fuze - zapalnik wtloczeniowy
gap in the defence line - luka w linii obronnej
gather dispersed troops - zbierac rozproszone oddzialy
glider - szybowiec
guerilla warfare - partyzantka
gun - dzialo, dzialko, karabin maszynowy, karabin, rewolwer
gun commander (artillery) - dzialonowy
gun carriage - loze
Gun Position Officer - oficer ogniowy
gun site - stanowisko ogniowe
gun station (two or more artillery pieces) - stanowisko ogniowe
gun team - obsluga
gun turret - wiezyczka strzelnicza
guncotton - bawelna strzelnicza
gunpowder - proch czarny
gunsmith - puszkarz
halt! - stoj!
hands up! - rece do gory!
hard-fought battle - zacieta bitwa
hastily organized defence - obrona doraznie przygotowana
head of a column - czolo kolumny
headquarters - dowodztwo, kwatera glowna
headquarters company - kompania dowodzenia (sztabowa)
hold enemy's advance - powstrzymywac posuwanie sie nieprzyjaciela
honorary rank - stopien honorowy
hooter - syrena
hostage - zakladnik
hostile act - akt wrogi
howitzer - haubica
ignitor - podsypka, zapalnik
imprisonment - uwiezienie, aresztowanie
in command - dowodzoncy, dowodca
 second in command - zastepca dowodcy
incendiary - podpalajacy
incendiary bomb - bomba zapalajanca
incediary device - urzadzenie wywolujace pozar
increase the density of fire - zwiekszyc natezenie ognia
independent infantry brigade - brygada samodzielna piechoty (3 or more batallions)
infantry - piechota
inflict heavy losses - zadac ciezkie straty
insane - chory umyslowo
instructor - instruktor
instructor of gunnery (artillery) - oficer poligonowy
Intelligence Officer - oficer wywiadowczy, informacyjny
intensify the rate of fire - wzmoc natezenie ognia
intercept a message - przejac telegram, podsluchac rozmowe telefoniczna
intercept an enemy aircraft - przychwycic (zwiazac) samolot nieprzyjacielski
interceptor fighter - "przychwytywacz"
internment - internowanie
Interrogation Officer - oficer wywiadowczy do badania jencow
invasion - inwazja
 faked invasion - inwazja pozorowana
jamming (as in "jammed gun") - zaciecie
jamming (radio signals) - sztuczne zaklocenie odbioru radiowego
join the army - wstapic do wojska
keep in step! - trzymaj krok!
keep in touch with the enemy - utrzymac stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem
keep up continuous fire - utrzymac ogien ciagly
lack of ammunition - brak amunicji
lancer - ulan
launch an attack - rozpoczac uderzenie (natarcie, atak)
lethal casualty - smiertelny wypadek
Mae West - kamizelka ratunkowa
manning the gun - armatura dziala, przygotowanie dziala do strzalu
man overboard! - czlowiek za burta!
mechanised army - armia zmotoryzowana
Mickey Mouse - dzwignia wyrzutnika bomb
military objective - obiekt wojskowy
military police - zandarmeria
mine (explosive) - (noun) mina, (verb) zakladac mine
mine a bridge - podminowac most
mine area - obszar zaminowany
mine detector - wykrywac min
mine-field - pole minowe
mine-laying aircraft - samolot do zrzucania min
mine projector - miotacz min
 acoustic mine - mina akustyczna
 chemical mine - mina skazajaca
mined charge - ladunek minowy
minelayer - stawiacz min
minesweeper - polawiacz min
misfire - niewypal
missing, believed killed - zaginiony, prawdopodobnie zabity
mopping-up operation - akcja oczyszczajaca
mortar - mozdzierz
 trench mortar - mozdzierz okopowy
 3" mortar - mozdzierz 3 calowy
mounted rifles - strzelcy konni
mutineer - buntownik
negotiated peace - pokoj kompromisowy
nervous instability (medical) - zaburzenia na tle nerwowym
nest of resistance - gniazdo oporu
 machine-gun nest - gniazdo karabina maszynowego
no man's land - strefa niczyja
non-combatant soldier - zolnierz sluzby pomocniczej (bez broni)
non-commissioned officer (NCO) - podoficer
nose dive - lot nurkowy
nose turret - wiezyczka przednia
numerical superiority - przewaga liczebna
observation post - posterunek obserwacyjny
occupation of gun positions - zajmowanie stanowisk ogniowych
odds, fighting against - walka przeciw przewazajacym silom
offer resistance - opierac sie, stawiac opor
other ranks - podoficerowie i szeregowcy
outflanking movement - manewr oskszydlajacy
parachute - spadochron
parachutist - spadochroniarz
paratroops - wojska spadochronowe
passed staff college - dyplomowany (oficer dypl.)
patrol - (noun) patrol, (verb) patrolowac
 foot patrol - patrol pieszy
patrol boat  - patrolowiec
penetrate deep into enemy's territory - wedrzec sie daleko w glab terytorium nieprzyjaciela
penetrating bullet - pocisk przebijajacy
penetrating force (power) - sila przebicia
percussion fuze - zapalnik uderzeniowy
Physical Training - wychowanie fizyczne
physically fit - fizycznie zdolny
picked troops - oddzialy wyborowe
pill-box - blokhauz, schron bojowy
pincer movement - manewr kleszczowy
piper - kobziarz
pistol - pistolet
plastic high explosive - material wybuchowy plastyczne
platoon - pluton
play pussy - schowac sie w chmurach
portable wireless set - radiostacja przenosna
primer - detonator, (signals) pobudzacz, (artillery) zaplonnik
priming - uzbrajanie min
prisoner of war - jeniec wojenny
probing bar - sonda do wykrywania min
projectile - pocisk
promotion - awans
provost - profos
Provost Marshal - szef zandarmerii
pull the trigger - pociagnac jezyk spustowy
pull through - sznur do czyszczenia lufy karabina
pull-through gauze - specjalna siatka do czyszczenia lufy
quartermaster - kwatermistrz
quick firing - szybkostrzelny
quiet a gun - zmusic dzialo do milczenia
radio - radio, telegraf bez drutu
radio-beacon - radiolatarnia
radio fix - ustalanie polozenia samolotu droga radiowa
radio frequency - wielka czestotliwosc (ponad 10,000 cykli/sek)
radio location - radioumiejscowianie
radio telefony - radiotelefonia, fonia
radio-operator - radiotelegrafista, radiotelefonista
radiogram - telegram przeslany droga radiowa
radio-transmitter - nadajnik radiowy
rake a trench - rolowac okop
raking fire - ogien koszacy
random shot - chybiony strzal
range of a gun (artillery) - donosnosc dziala
ranging fire - ogien wstrzeliwania
rank - ranga, stopien, szereg
rapid fire - gwaltowny ogien 
rate of fire - nasilenie ognia
rearm - przezbroic
reassembling the rifle - skladanie karabina
recapture a town - odbic miasto
reccomend for promotion - przedstawic do awansu
reconnaissance - zwiad, rozpoznanie
reconnoitring detachment - oddzial rozpoznawczy (zwiadowczy)
recover ground - odzyskac (odbic) teren
reduce an officer to the ranks - zdegradowac oficera
regiment - pulk (znaczenie tego slowa jest inne niz w jezyku polskim - Polskiemu pojeciu pulku-jednostki taktycznej odpowiadaja tylko pulki kawalerii (obecnie broni panc.); w piechocie pulk oznacza terytorialna jednostke mobilizacyjna, mogaca wystawic kilkanascie a nawet kilkadziesiat baonow. Jednostka odpowiadajaca polskiemu pulkowi piech. jest brygada (patrz Brigade), zlozona zazwyczaj z batalionow roznych pulkow. Odznaki mundurowe, nazwy, odznaczenia (patrz Battle Honours) otrzymuja pulki a nie brygady. Np. cala artyleria nalezy teoretycznie do jednego pulku "Royal Regiment of Artillery," lecz organizacyjne podzielona jest na "Field Regiments, R.A.," "R H A Rgt.," "Medium Rgt., R.A." itp.).
regrouping - przegrupowanie
regular army - wojsko zawodowe
reinforced position - stanowisko umocnione
reinforcements - posilki
reload a rifle - zarepetowac karabin
resume an attack - podjac natarcie (atak) na nowo
reveille - pobudka
scorched earth policy - obracanie wszystkiego za soba w perzyne
scout - zwiadowca, szperacz
scout car - samochod zwiadowczy
scout platoon - pluton rozpoznawczy
second to none in the field - najlepszy w polu
secret service - sluzba wywiadowcza
 military secret - tajemnica wojskowa
section - druzyna, dzial, (artillery) pluton
section leader - druzynowy
Security Officer - oficer bezpieczenstwa
seek to exploit success - dazyc do wykorzystania powodzenia
seize ground - uchwycic teren
self-contained unit - jednostka samowystarczalna
self-ignition - samozaplon
self-protection - samoobrona
semi-automatic pistol - pistolet polautomatyczny
sentinel - wartownik
sentry - posterunek, wartownik
serve a gun - (artillery) obslugiwac dzialo
serve out ammunition - wydzielac amunicje
shallow formation - plytkie ugrupowanie
sharpshooter - strzelec wyborowy
shell - (noun) skorupa, muszla, pocisk (armatni), bomba, granat; (verb) bombardowac
shell hole - lej od pocisku
shell proof emplacement - stanowisko odporne na pociski artyleryjskie
 gas shell - pocisk gazowy
 high-explosive shell - granat
 smoke shell - pocisk dymny
 star shell - pocisk oswietlajacy
shock troops - oddzialy szturmowe (wyborowe)
shot down in flames - ostro zganiony
shrapnel - szrapnel
sick leave - urlop zdrowotny
side arms - bron boczna
siege warfare - wojna obleznicza
signal rocket - rakieta sygnalowa
Signaller - (artillery) telefonista (kanonier oddzialow lacznosci)
signalling flag - choragiewka do sygnalizacji recznej
signalling pistol - rakietnica
Signals - wojsko lacznosci
silencer - tlumik
silent movement - cichy ruch
single-round fire - ogien pojedynczy
six-chambered revolver - rewolwer szesciostrzalowy
skirmish - potyczka
ski-troops - oddzialy narciarskie
slightly injured - lekko ranny
slit trench - row przeciwodlamkowy
slow burning powder - proch wolnopalny (czarny)
small arms - bron malokalibrowa
smokeless cartridge - naboj bezdymny
smooth barrel - lufa niegwintowana
sniper - strzelec wyborowy, szperacz
soft-nosed bullet - pocisk dumdum
soldier - zolnierz
splinter - odlamek
spy - szpieg
squad - oddzial
 firing squad - pluton egzekucyjny
squadron - (army) szwadron; (airforce) dywizjon; (navy) eskadra
staff - sztab
staff officer - oficer sztabu od dywizji w gore (kapitan lub major)
stand one's ground - utrzymac teren, dotrzymac pola
start line - linia wyruszenia, linia przejscia (nakazana rozkazem)
starting line - linia wyjsciowa
static defence - obrona stala, obrona na miejscu
stout resistance - zdecydowany opor
street fighting - walki uliczne
stretcher bearer - sanitariusz-noszowy
strict order - szczegolowy rozkaz
striking force of armoured vehicles - sila uderzeniowa wozow pancernych
stripping a rifle - rozkladanie karabina
strong point - punkt oporu
submarine - okret podwodny, lodz podwodna
sub-unit - pododdzial
superior in number - w przewazajacej sile
supplementary reserve - rezerwa uzupelniajaca
supply officer - oficer zaopatrzenia (w zywnosc i materialy pedne)
support battalion - batalion strzelcow przewozonych
 close support - towarzyszenie ogniowe, wsparcie bezposrednie
suppressing fire - ogien obezwladniajacy
surrender - poddanie sie
survey battery - (artillery) dywizjon pomiarowy
survey group - pluton topograficzny
suspension of hostilities - zawieszenie dzialan wojennych
sustain an attack - wytrzymac uderzenie (natarcie, atak)
swift advance - szybkie posuwanie sie naprzod
sword - szabla, miecz, palasz, szpada
tail attack - atak na ogon
take advantage of the ground - wykorzystac teren
take aim - celowac
take by assault - zdobyc szturmem
take by surprise - zaskoczyc
take cover - kryc sie
take up concealed position - zajac ukryte stanowisko
tank - zbionik, czolg
tank trap - przeskoda, pulapka przeciwpancerna
term of service - okres sluzby
threatened flank - zagrozone  skrzydlo
tide of battle - punkt kulminacyjny bitwy
tightening encirclement - zaciesniajace okrazenie
tour of duty - objazd sluzbowy
toxic smoke - dym napastliwy
tracer cartridge (shell) - naboj (pocisk) smugowy
trajectory - tor pocisku
tri-nitro-toluene (TNT) - trotyl
trip wire - drut zrywowy, potykacz
unobstructed field of fire - wolne pole ostrzalu
withdraw - wycofac sie, cofnac sie
withdrawal - odwrot
within striking distance - w skutecznym zasiegu broni wlasnej
adiutant - adjutant, Aide-de-Camp
akcja - action
akcja oczyszczajaca - mopping up operation
akcje, wejsc w - to get into action
akcji, przygotowanie do - preparation for action
akt wrogi - hostile act
akta punktu obserwacyjnego - recording data (at the observation post)
alfabet Morse'a - Morse code
amunicja - ammunition, munition
amunicja cwiczebna  - drill ammunition
amunicja malokalibrowa - small-arms ammunition
amunicja ostra - live ammunition
amunicja podzielna - breech-loaded ammunition
amunicja slepa - blank ammunition
amunicja zapalajaca - incendiary ammunition
amunicje; osrodek zaopatrzenia w amunicje (szczebl dywizji) - ammunition refilling point
 wydzielac amunicje - to serve out ammunition
amunicji, brak - lack of ammunition
 ladownik amunicji - magazine filler
 odczuwac brak amunicji - to suffer shortage of ammunition
 punkt przeladunkowy amunicji z pociagow - ammunition railhead
 wyczerpac wszelkie zapasy amunicji - to exhaust all ammunition supplies
 wysunieta skladnica amunicji - advanced ammunition depot
amunicyjny (a, e) - ammunition
 kolumna amunicyjna - ammunition column
 kompania amunicyjna - ammunition company
 punkt amunicyjny - ammunition point
 sklad amunicyjny (tymczasowy) - ammunition dump 
 skladnica amunicyjna w bazie portowej - base ammunition depot
 skrzynka amunicyjna - ammunition box, cartridge case
 (strzelec) amunicyjny - ammunition number
 strzelec amunicyjny (w czolgu) - loader
 tasma amunicyjny - ammunition belt, cartridge belt
apel - roll call
apel wieczorny - tattoo roll call
apteczka - medical box
apteczka podreczna - first aid kit
areszt - arrest, detention barracks, confinement, (slang) glasshouse, (slang) clink
areszt lekki - open arrest
areszt scisly - close arrest
aresztant - prisoner
aresztowac - to arrest
aresztowanie - imprisonment
 aresztowanie, nakaz - warrant
armatura - armature, armament
 armatura dziala - manning the gun
armaty, rura rdzeniowa - barrel
armia - army
armia okupacyjna - army of occupation
armia zmotoryzowana - mechanised army
armii, odsloniete skrzydlo - uncovered flank of the army
arsenal - arsenal
artyleria - artillery
artyleria bezposredniego wsparcia - close-support artillery
artyleria ciezka - heavy artillery
artyleria ciezka obleznicza - heavy siege artillery
artyleria dyspozycyjna Naczelnego Wodza - General Headquarters artillery
artyleria forteczna - garrison artillery
artyleria gorska - mountain artillery
artyleria konna - horse artillery
artyleria lekka - light artillery, field artillery
artyleria morska - naval artillery
artyleria nadbrzezna - coastal artillery
artyleria najciezsza - super-heavy artillery
artyleria o ciagu konnym - horsed artillery
artyleria przeciwlotniczej - anti-aircraft artillery
artyleria przeciwpancerna - anti-tank artillery
artylerii, dowodca dywizjonu - battery commander
 dyon artylerii przeciwlotniczej - anti-aircraft battery
 dywizjon artylerii - battery
 ogien zwalczania artylerii - counter-battery fire
 pulk artylerii lekkiej (PAL) - field artillery regiment
 samolot zwiadowczy artylerii - artillery spotting plane
 stanowisko dywizjonu artylerii - battery emplacement
 wiedza o artylerii - gunnery
 zapora artylerii przeciwlotniczej - box-barrage
 zasady strzelania artylerii - gunnery
artyleryjski (a,e,) artillery
 ogien artyleryjski - artillery fire
 ostrzeliwanie artyleryjskie - artillery bombardment
 pojedynek artyleryjskie - artillery duel
 przygotowanie artyleryjskie - artillery preparation
 rozpoznanie artyleryjkie - artillery reconnaissance
 szkola artyleryjska - gunnery school
 scigacz artyleryjski - motor gunboat
 wsparcie artyleryjskie - artillery support
 zapora artyleryjska - artillery barrage
artylerzysta (potocznie) - gunner 
atak - attack, drive
atak falowy - wave attack
atak jednolity - homogenous attack
atak masowy - mass attack
atak na duzej wysokosci - attack at high altitude
atak na ogon - stern attack
atak na ogon samolotu - tail attack
atak na skrzydlo - beam attack
atak nieoczekiwany - unexpected attack
atak od czola - frontal attack
atak od strony slonca - down sun attack
atak osiagnal swoj cel - attack pressed home
atak w czasie wznoszenia sie - attack on the climb
atak z boku - beam attack
atak z dolu - attack from below
atak z gory - attack from above
atak z lewej burty - attack from the port side (navy) 
atak z lewej strony - attack from the port side (airforce)
atak z niskiego pulapu - attack from low ceiling, attack from low level, low-flying attack
atak z prawej burty - attack from the starboard side (navy)
atak z prawej strony - attack from the starboard side (airforce)
atak z tylu - attack from the rear
 odlozyc atak - to postpone an attack
 odrzucic atak - to drive back an attack
 podjac atak - to assume an attack
 rozpoczac atak - to launch an attack
 wytrzymac atak - to sustain an attack
ataku, koncentracja oddzialow do - massing for attack
atakowac - to attack, to assault
automat zwalniajacy bomby - bomb distributor
automatyczny (a,e) - automatic
automatyczne sterowanie - automatic control
 bron automatyczne - automatic weapon
 pilot automatyczne - (slang) George
 pistolet automatyczne - automatic pistol
awans - promotion
 otrzymac awans - to get promotion
 przyspieszony awans - accelerated promotion
awansowac - to promote
bagnet - bayonet
bagnet na bron! - fix bayonets!
bagnet zdejm! - unfix bayonets!
 bagnetem, kluc - to bayonet
 bagnetu; koniec - point
 pochwa bagnet - bayonet scabbard
 bagnety, uderzenie na - bayonet charge
bandera - colours, (navy) ensign
bandera do polowy - half-mast colours
bandy zbrojne, nieregularne - irregulars
batalion roboczy - labour battalion
bawelna strzelnicza - guncotton
baza - base
baza lotnicza - station, air base, aeroport
baza morska - naval base
baza rozdzielcza - distribution base
baza wysunieta - advanced base
baza zaopatrzeniowa - supply base
benzyna - benzine, petrol
benzyna lekka - gasoline
benzyne; osrodek zaopatrywania w benzyne - petrol refilling point
benzynowy (a,e) ; kompania benzynowa - petrol company, bulk petrol company
 przeciwpancerna mina benzynowa - hedge-hopper
 przenosna kuchenka benzynowa - portable cooker
 punkt benzynowy - petrol point
 silnik benzynowy - petrol engine, petrol motor
 wysuniety punkt benzynowy - petrol point
bezblyskowy, bezplomienny (proch strzelicny) - flashless (powder)
bezdymny - smokeless
 naboj bezdymny - smokeless cartridge
 nitroglicerynowy proch bezdymny - cordite
bezpieczenstwa, pluton - field security section
bezposredni (a,e) - direct
bezposrednie wsparcie - close support
besposrednie wsparcie lotnicze - direct air support
 ogien bezposrednie - direct fire
 ubezpieczenie bezposrednie - local protection
bezposredniego wsparcia, artyleria - close support artillery
bezwladnikowy, zapalnik - graze fuze
beben nabojowy - ammunition drum, magazine
bialy bron - cold steel
bialy choragiew - flag of truce
biegiem marsz! - double march!
biegowy, pas - runway
bitwa - battle, fight, fighting
bitwa o przebicie sie - break-through battle
bitwa zacieta - hard-fought battle
 krwawa bitwa - onslaught
bitwe, wydac - to give battle
bitwie, przerwa w - lull in the battle
bitwy; prowadzenie bitwy - conducting the battle
 punkt kulminacyjny bitwy - tide of battle
 ugrupowanie do bitwy - battle array
 uszykowac do bitwy - to embattle
bliski, rozpoznanie - contact reconaissance, short-distance reconnaissance
blokhauz - pill box
blad w celowaniu - error in aiming
boczny (a,e) - lateral, side
boczny karabin maszynowy - lateral machine gun
boczny bron - side-arms
 obserwacja boczna - flank observation
 straz boczny - flank guard
bojowy (a,e) - bojowy wyposazenie - war equipment
 gaz bojowy - war gas
 gotowosc bojowy - alert
 linia bojowa - line
 lot bojowy - operational flight
 marsz bojowy - advance
 musztra bojowa - battle drill
 patrol bojowy - battle patrol
 rozkaz bojowy - operation order
 rozpoznanie bojowe - contact reconnaissance
 rzut bojowy - fighting echelon
 schron bojowy - pill-box
 szyk bojowy - line
 tabor bojowy - first-line transport
 wachta bojowa - (navy) defence station
 woz bojowy - fighting vehicle
bok - flank, side
 boku, atak z - beam attack
bomba - bomb, shell
bomba blyskowa - flash bomb
bomba cwiczebna - practice bomb
bomba dymna - smoke bomb
bomba gazowa - gas bomb
bomba hydrostatyczna (glebinowa) - depth charge
bomba kruszaca - high-explosive bomb
bomba lotnicza - bomb, aircraft bomb
bomba odbezpieczona - live bomb
bomba odlamkowa - fragmentation bomb
bomba oswietlajaca - flash nomb
bomba slepa - dummy bomb
bomba zapalajaca - incendiary bomb
bomba z korkiem zastepczym - plugged bomb
bomba z opoznionym zapalnikiem (bomba czasowa) - delayed-action bomb
bomba zrzucona bardzo blisko celu - (air force) near miss
bomb; oddzial rozbrajaczy bomb - Bomb Disposal Squad
bombami, dajacy ochrone przed - bomb-proof
bomby; gasic bomby zapalajace - to deal with incendiaries
 lej od wybuchu bomby - bomb crater
 niewypal bomby - blind bomb
bombowiec - bomber
bombowiec nurkowy - dive-bomber
bombardowanie odwetowe - retaliatory bombing
bombardowanie represyjne - retaliatory bombing
boj - battle, fight, fighting, combat
brak amunijci - lack of ammunition
 odczuwac brak broni - to suffer shortage of arms
braki w uzbrojeniu - deficiencies in armament
braku takieho rozkazu, w - in default of such order
bron - arm, weapon, service
 biala bron - cold steel
bron automatyczna - automatic weapon
bron boczna - side-arm, side-arms
bron malokalibrowa - small arms
bron nieznana (tajemnicza) - secret weapon
bron towarzyszaca - accompanying arm
bron wspierajaca - supporting arm
 do nogi bron! - order arms!
 do przegladu bron! - examine arms!
 na pas bron! - sling arms!
 nosic bron na ramieniu - to shoulder arms
 na ramie bron! - slope arms!
 na ramie bron! (szabla) - sword at the carry!
 podstawowa bron - basic weapon
 prezentuj bron! - present arms!
 w kozly bron! - pile arms!
 wywolac warte pod bron - to turn out the guard
broni; dostarczyc duze ilosci broni - to supply large quantities of arms
 flanelka do czyszczenia broni - flannelette patch
 grupa polaczonych broni - mixed battle group
 odczuwac brak broni - to suffer shortage of arms
 oddzialy broni polaczonych - mixed force
 oficer broni - (slang) Mr. Fireworks
 przeglad broni - examination of arms
 rodzaj broni wzgl. sluzby - branch of service
 sklad broni - arsenal
 towarzysz broni - brother-in-arms
 w skutecznym zasiegu broni wlasnej - within striking distance
 zakaz wwozu lub wywozu broni - embargo of arms
 zdolny do noszenia broni - able to bear arms
 budka wartownicza - sentry box
cekaem - machine-gun
cel - aim, target, objective, destination, intention
cel holowany - drogue target
cel nieruchomy - stationary target
cel niewidoczny - invisible target
cel niknacy - disappearing target
cel ruchomy - moving target
cel stuczny (glowka, popiersie) - dummy target
cel w poblizu oddzialow wlasnych - close target
cel zywy - living target
 wziac na cel - to sight
cele przemijajace - fleeting-opportunity targets
cele w duzej od siebie odleglosci - targets well apart
celow; przydzial celow - assigning of targets
 zwalczenie celow - engagement of targets
celu; polozenie poczatkowe celu - present position of a target
 srodek celu - bull's-eye
 trafienie w srodek celu - direct hit
celnosc - marksmanship
celny ogien - accurate fire
chirurgiczna, polowa jednostka - field surgical unit
choragiew - flag, colours
 biala choragiew - flag of truce
choragwiach, nazwy bitew wyhaftowane na - battle honours
choragiewka - flag
choragiewka sygnalizacyjna - signalling flag
choragiewki do wytyczania rejonow jednostek - camp flags
choragiewki kierunkowe dla oznaczania miejsca oddawania honorow na defiladach - saluting colours
choragwiany, poczet - colour party
chroniona, strefa - protected area
chybiony strzal - random shot
ciezko ranny - fatally injured
cios - blow, strike, hit
ciosow, szybka wymiana - rally
codzienny raport stanu - daily strength return
czolg szybki - cruiser tank
czujka - look-out post
czuly (natychmiastowy), zapalnik - extra-sensitive fuze
czynny (a,e) - active
 obrona przeciwlotnicza czynna - active air defence
 sluzba czynna - active service, active list
czysto i porzadnie - (slang) tiddly
cwiczebny (a,e);
 amunicja cwiczebna - drill ammunition
 bomba cwiczebna - practice bomb
cwiczebny teren gazowy - gas compound
cwiczebny krok - goose-step
 stan cwiczebny jednostki - effective strength of a unit
cwiczenie - drill exercise, practice
cwiczenie aplikacyjne - tactical exercise without troops, exercise without troops
cwiczenie dwustronne - two-sided exercise
cwiczenie jednostronne - one-sided exercise
cwiczenie szkieletowe - skeleton exercise
cwiczenie taktyczne - tactical exercise
cwiczenie wyladowcze z pociagu - detraining (unloading) exercise
cwiczenia - manoeuvres
cwiczenia obrony przeciwlotniczej - air defence exercises
cwiczenia przeciwpozarowe - fire drill
daleki rozpoznanie - long-range reconaissance, independant reconaissance
daleonosne, dzialo - long-range gun
dalmierca - range-taker
dalmierz - range-finder
dawanie znakow - signalling
dazyc do wykorzystania powodzenia - to seek to exploit success
denny, zapalnik - base fuze
desant spadochronowy, masowy - mass parachute descent
desantu; oddzialy desantu morskiego - sea-borne troops
 uderzenie desantu morskiego - sea-borne attack
deszcz odlamkow - rain of splinters
dowodca (dca) - commanding officer, commander, in command
dowodztwo -headquarters, command
droga urzedowa - through official channels
drut kolczasty - barbed wire
drut zrywowy - trip wire
druzyna roboczy - fatigue party
dum-dum, pocisk - soft-nosed bullet, expanding bullet
dymem, oslepic - to blind with smoke
dymny (a,e); bomba dymna - smoke bomb
 oddzial kladzcy zaslony dymny - smoke troops
 pocisk dymny - smoke shell, smoke-emitting projectile
 swieca dymna - smoke producer
 zaslona dymna - smoke cover, smoke screen
dymowy, aparat - smoke generator
dynamit - dynamite
dynamit zelatynowy - gelatine dynamite
dyplomowany, oficer - Officer passed Staff College
dyslokacja oddzialow - disposition of troops
dywizja - division
dywizja pancerna - armoured division
dywizja w marszu bojowym - division in the advance
dywizjon (w artylerii lekkiej i ciezkiej) - (artillery) battery
dywizjon - (air force) squadron
dywizjon - (navy) flotilla
dywizjon artylerii przeciwlotniczej - anti-aircraft battery
dywizjon pomiarowy - (artillery) survey battery
dywizjon rozpoznawczy - reconnaissance squadron
dywizjonow lotniczych, zgrupowanie - wing
dywizjonu; dowodca dywizjonu artylerii - battery commander
 oficer zwiadowczy dywizjonu - (artillery) Command Post Officer
 stanowisko dywizjonu artylerii - battery emplacement
dywizyjny (a,e) - divisional
dywizyjny oboz jencow i internowanych - divisional cage
 odwody dywizyjne - divisional reserves
dzialanie opozniajace - delaying action
dzialanie polaczone - combined operations
dzialanie w szyku pieszym - dismounted action
dzialanie w wypadku napotkania oporu - action on meeting opposition
dzialanie wstepne - initial movement, opening move
dzialanie zaczepne - offensive
 rozpoczac dzialanie - to start an offensive, to take action
 rozszerzyc dzialanie wachlarzowo - to fan out
dzialania; dzialania bojowe - (air force) active operations
dzialania na wieksza skale - large scale operations
dzialania ruchowe - mobile operations
 niezdolny do dzialania - out of action
 pas dzialania - (artillery) arc of fire
 podjac dzialania zaczepne - to assume offensive
 pole dzialania - field
 przygotowanie do dzialania - preparation for action
 swoboda dzialania - freedom of action
 zachowac calkowita swobode - to retain complete freedom of action
 zaniechac dzialania - to abandon an operation
 zasieg dzialania - (air force) radius of action
dzialaniach, wziac udzial w - to take part in action
dzialan; kolejnosc dzialan - sequence of operations
 przejsc do dzialan zaczepnych - to pass on to the offensive
 zakonczenie dzialan - conclusion of operations
 zakonczenie dzialan wojennych - conclusion of war operations
 zaprzestanie dzialan wojennych - cessation of hostile activities
 zawieszenie dzialan wojennych - suspension of hostilities
dzialko lotnicze - aircraft cannon, air cannon
dzialo - gun, cannon
dzialo dalekonosne - long-range gun
dzialo kierunkowe - pivot gun
dzialo milczace - silent gun
dzialo najciesze - super heavy gun, (slang) granny
dzialo przeciwlotnicze - anti-aircraft gun
dzialo przeciwpancerne - anti-tank gun
 obslugiwac dzialo - (artillery) to serve a gun
 przygotowac dzialo do strzalu - to align
 zmusic dzialo do milczenia - to quiet a gun
dziala; armatura dziala - manning of the gun
 donosnosc dziala - (artillery) range of the gun
 obsulga dziala - (artillery) gun numbers 
 przygotowanie dziala do strzalu - manning of the gun
 rura rdzeniowa - loose barrel
 stanowisko dziala - (artillery) gun platform
 wylot dziala - (artillery) mouth of a cannon
 zuzycie dziala - (artillery) wear of the gun
dzialoczyny - (artillery) gun drill
dzialonowy - (artillery) gun commander
dzialowy (a,e); katomierz dzialowy - gun sight
 podloze dzialowy - (artillery) gun platform
 wieza dzialowa - (navy) turret
Dziennik Personalny, przeprowadzic przez - to be gazetted
dziennika (podawczego), liczba - reference, reference number
dzienny, rozkaz - daily orders
"dziewiatka" na tarczy strzeleckiej o dziesieciu pierscieniach - (slang) magpie
dziewczyna - (slang) party
egzekucyjny, pluton - firing squad
egspedycja karna - punitive expedition
elementy rozpoznania - reconnaissance parties
erkaem - light machine-gun
eskadra - flight, (navy) squadron
eskadra krazownikow - (navy) cruiser squadron
eskadra okretow liniowych - battle squadron
etapowy, obszar - line of communications area
ewakuacja rannych na tyly - removing casualties to the rear
ewidencja - record
ewidencja pulkowa - regimental records
falami, atak - wave attack
farba do maskowania - camouflage paint
farba do wykrywania gazow bojowych - gas-detector paint
farba ochronna - shadow paint
farwater (kanal tralowany) - swept channel
fizyczne, wychowanie - Physical Training
fizycznie zdolny - physically fit
flaga, rozpoznawcza okretu - pennant
flage narodowa, wywiesc - to hoist the national flag
front - front
 waski front - narrow front
froncie, marsz bojowy na szerokim - advance on a broad front
galowy, mundur - full dress
gaz trujacy - poison gas, noxious gas, asphyxiating gas
gestosc ognia - density of fire
gietka, obrona - flexible defense
glebinowa, mina - depth charge
glowami, ogien ponad - overhead fire
glowny (a,e) - main, general, primary
 glowna linia oporu - main line of resistance
 glowny punkt opatrunkowy - main dressing station
 sily glowne - main forces, main body, main body of troops
glownego; pozycja glownego oporu - main defensive position, line of foremost defended localities
 strefa glownego oporu - main defensive zone
gniazdo - nest
 bocianie gniadzo - (navy) crow's-nest
gniazdo karabina maszynowego - machine-gun nest
gniadzo oporu - stronghold, nest of resistance, rampart
godzina policyjna - curfew
goniec - runner, messenger, (air force) orderly
goniec motocyklista - dispatch rider
gotowosc bojowa - alert
gotowosci, byc w - to stand to
 stopien gotowosci - degree of readiness
 w ciaglej gotowosci - in constant readiness
gotow! - ready!
gotow do rozwiniecia sie - ready to deploy
gory, rece do! - hands up!
granat - grenade, shell, high-explosive shell
granat przeciwpancerny - armour-piercing shell
granat reczny - hand grenade
 rozbroic granat - to render a grenade harmless
gros sil nieprzyjacielskich - bulk of enemy troops
grupa broni polaczonych - mixed battle group
grupa przedstawicieli oddzialu - representative fraction
grupa wojsk wsparcia - support group
gupowania sie oddzialow do dzialania, rejon - assembly area
grzechotka alarmowa - trench rattle
gwaltowny ogien - rapid fire
gwara wojskowa - military slang
gwintowanie lufy - rifling of gun barrel
haubica - (artillery) howitzer
historia pulku - regimental records
hiszpanski, koziol - chevaux de frise, knife-rest
honorowy, stopien - honourary rank
 warta honorowa - guard of honour
imienna, lista - nominal roll
informacyjny, komunikat - intelligence summary
 oficer informacyjny - Intelligence Officer
indentury, oficer - Administrative Officer
internowanych, dywizyjny oboz jencow i - divisional cage
 oboz osob internowanych - internment camp
inwazja - invasion
inwazja pozorowana - faked invasion
inwazyjna, barka - invasion barque, invasion barge
iperyt - mustard gas
izba chorych - sick quarters
jadalnia - mess
jazda - drive
 jazda probna - trial trip
jednostka - unit
jednostka samodzielna - independant unit
jednostka wystarczalna - self-contained unit
 wielka jednostka - formation, higher formation
 wieksza jednostka morska - capital ship
jednostke, rozbic - to disembody a unit
jeniec wojenny - prisoner of war
jencow, oficer wywiadowczy do badania - Interrogation Officer
kadra - cadre
kaganiec - muzzle
kajdanki reczne - handcuffs
kaliber -calibre
kamizelka ratunkowa - life-saving jacket, (slang) Mae West
kanal tralowy (farwater) - (navy) swept channel
kanonada - cannonade
kanonier - gunner
kantyna - canteen
kantyna ruchoma - mobile canteen, travelling canteen
kapelan - chaplain, padre
kapelan wojskowy - Chaplain to the Forces
kapitulacja - capitulation, surrender
kapitulacji, przyjac warunki - to accept the conditions of surrender
kara - punishment, penalty
kara dyscyplinarna - disciplinary punishment
kara smierci - capital punishment
karabin - rifle, gun
 ciezki karabin maszynowy - medium machine gun
karabin maszynowy - machine gun, gun
karabin maszynowy boczny - lateral machine-gun
karabin przeciwpancerny - anti-tank gun, anti-tank rifle, (slang) mule gun
 lekki karabin maszynowy - light machine-gun
 lekki karabin maszynowy typu "Bren" - Bren gun
 najciezszy karabin maszynowy - heavy machine-gun
 rozladowac karabin - to unload a rifle
  typowy karabin (regulaminowy) - service rifle
 wycelowac karabin (w) - to point a rifle (at)
 zaladowac karabin - to load a rifle
 zarepetowac karabin - to reload a rifle
karabina; gniazdo karabina maszynowego - machine-gun nest
 ostrzeliwac z karabina maszynowego - to machine-gun
 rozkladanie karabina - stripping the rifle
 skladanie karabina - reassembling the rifle
 stanowisko karabina maszynowego - machine-gun post
karabinow maszynowych, ogien sprzezonych szybostrzelnych - pom-pom fire
karabiny (dzialka) przeciwlotnicze sprzezone - pom-pom
 stojak na karabiny - rifle rack
karna, ekspedycja - punitive expedition
karta tozsamosci - identity card
kartacz - case shot
kartka ogniowa (dla dziala) - (artillery) gun programme
kartograficzna sluzba - Ordnance Survey
kasa polowa - Field-Cash
kasyno - mess
kasyno oficerskie - Officers' Mess
kasyno podoficaerskie - Sergeants' Mess
kawaleria (kaw.) - cavalry
kawaleria spieszona - dismounted cavalry
kawaleria zmotoryzowana - mechanised cavalry
kawalerzysta - cavalryman
kapielowy (laznia polowa) oddzial - bath unit
kierowac sie ku - to front
kierowanie ogniem - fire control, control of fire
kierownik regulacji ruchu - Movement Control Officer
kierunek ognia - direction of fire
kierunek ogulny - general direction
kierunek ruchu - direction of movement
kierunek wlasciwy - true course
 reflektor wskazujacy kierunek - searchlight pointer
kierunkowskaz - traffic indicator
kiosk okretu podwodnego - conning tower
kleszczowy, manewr - pincer movement
kleska - defeat, rout
 kleske, zadac - to rout
kluczowy (a,e); pozycja kluczowa - key position
 szyk kluczowy - Vic-formation
kladacy zaslony dymne, oddzial - smoke troops
kladka - gangway
kladka dla pieszych - footbridge
kladka tratowa (dla lekkich pojazdow) - mat bridge
kladki, zespol budajacy - bridging party
kluc bagnetem - to bayonet
klucz sygnalizacyjny - signalling key
kobieta - (slang) party
kod - code
 kod sygnalow recznych - arm-signal code
kolczasty, drut - barbed wire
kolejno odlicz! - number!
kolejnosc dzialan - sequence of operations
kolejnosc marszu - order of march
kolonia - colony
 koloniach, przeniesc zolnierza do sluzby w - to shift a soldier overseas
kolumna amunicyjna - ammunition column
kolumna marszowa - column of route
kolumna sanitarna - motor-ambulance convoy
 kolumny, czolo - head of a column
kolnierz ratunkowy - life-belt
komenda - command
komenda uzupelnien - Clearing Centre
komisja sledcza - court of inquiry
kompania - company
kompania amunicyjna - ammunition company
kompania bezynowa - petrol company
kompania czolgow - army tank squadron
kompania dowodzenia (sztabowa) - headquarters company
kompania drogowo-kolejowa - railway construction company
kompania przednia - forward company
kompania sanitarna II rzutu - rear field ambulance
kompania warsztatowa - workshop company
kompania wydzielona - detached company
kompania wysunieta - forward company
 wysunieta kompania sanitarna - forward field ambulance
komunikat informacyjny - intelligence summary
koncentracja (ognia) - concentration
koncentracja oddzialow do natarcia - massing for attack
konny (a,e); artyleria konna - horse artillery
 ciag lub przewoz konny - horse transport
 strzelec konny - mounted rifles
 konnym, artyleria o ciagu - horsed artillery
konserwa wolowa - bully beef
kontrtorpedowiec - destroyer
kontrwywiad - counter-espionage, security
konwoj - convoy, escort
konwoj lotniczy - air umbrella
kon - horse
kon pociagowy - draught horse
kon wierzchowy - steed
 wojskowy kon wierzchowy - charger
kopac row - to dig a trench
kostka materialu wybuchowego - slab of explosive
koszarniak - confinement to barracks, (slang) junkiers
koszar, zakaz opuszczania - confinement to barracks
koszacy, ogien - grazing fire
kozly bron!, w - pile arms!
krazownik - cruiser
krazownik liniowy - battle-cruiser
krazownikow, eskadra - cruiser squadron
kresowe, oddzialy - border troops
kruszacy; ladunek wybuchowy kruszacy - (artillery) bursting charge
 wybuchowy material kruszacy - high explosive, disruptive explosive
kulka (szrapnela) - bullet
kulminacyjny bitwy, punkt - tide of battle
kurs szturmowy - battle school
kwatermistrz - quartermaster
kwatermistrzowski (a,e); dzial kwatermistrzowski - administration
 zarzadzenia kwatermistrzowkie - administrative arrangements
kwaterowac - to billet
lampa sygnalizacyjna - (signals) flashing lamp, (air force) Aldis lamp
lesne, walki - bush and forest warfare
liczba - cipher, number
liczba dziennika (podawczego) - reference number
liczba porzadkowa - reference
liczbowy, symbol - reference number
liczebny (a,e); przewaga liczebna - numerical superiority
 stan liczebny (wojska) w czasu pokoju - peacetime strength
linia - line
linia bezpieczenstwa (linia ustalona rozkazem, do ktorej moga dojezdzac pojazdy sluzbowe - safe line
linia bojowa - line
linia czat - line of outposts
linia dozoru - line of observation
linia glownego oporu - main line of resistance
linia transportowa (kolejowa) - line of movement
linia komunikacyjna - line of communication
linia kontrolna (linia w terenie, o przekroczeniu ktorej oddzialy mudza natychmiast meldowac) - reporting line
linia obrony - line of defence
linia odniesienia - datum line
linia oporu - line of resistance
linia podejscia - line of approach
linia polozenia - (artillery) line of sight
linia przejscia (nakazana rozkazem) - start line
linia uderzeniowa - thrust line
linia wodna (glowna) - water line
linia wyjscia - datum line
linia wyjsciowa - starting line
linia wyjsciowa zapory - (artillery) opening line of barrage
linia zblizania sie - line of approach
linie podstawowe - key lines
 podstawowe linie zapory - (artillery) key lines of barrage
 wyrownac linie obronne - to rectify the defence lines
linii; wstep linii frontu - salient
liniowy okret - battleship
 pulk liniowy - line regiment
lista - list, roll
lista chorych - sick list
lista imienna - nominal roll
lista strat w ludziach - casualty list
lista zabitych w akcji - Roll of Honour
lista zoldu (uposazenia) - pay roll
lont - fuze
lont prochowy - safety fuze
lont wybuchowy - detonating fuze
lont wybuchowy trotylowy - instantaneous detonating fuze, cordeau detonnant
lont wybuchowy typu handlowego - cord-tex
lot - flight
 jednokierunkowy lot srodladowy - cross-country flight
lot bez przerwy - non-stop flight
lot bojowy - operational flight
lot doswiadczalny - test flight
lot koszacy - (slang) hedge-hopping
lot nurkowy - diving, nose-diving
lot odbiorczy - acceptance flight
lot plecowy - inverted flighing
lot plaski - volplane
lot pojedynczy (solowy) - solo flight
lot poziomy na pelnym gazie - all-out level flight
lot rozpoznawczy - reconnaissance flight
lot szkolny - practice flight
lot szybowy - gliding flight
lot wymiatajacy - sweeping flight
lot z wolno puszczonymi sterami - "hands off" flight
lot z zadaniem - sortie
lot zaglowy - soaring flight
lotnicze, wsparcie - air support
lotniczne, bezposrednie wsparcie - direct air suppoert
lotnik (podoficer lub szeregowiec) - airman
lotniskowiec - aircraft carrier
ludnosc cywilna - civilian population
lufa - barrel
lufa niegwintowana - smooth barrel
lufa wolna! - gun clear!
lufa zapchana - blocked-up barrel
lufa zardzewiala - rusty barrel
luka w linii obrony - gap in the defence line
luki, stwierdzic - to discover gaps
luki, wypchnac patrole przez - to push patrols through gaps
luzny, szyk - open formation
ladunek - load, charge
ladunek czesciowy - partial charge
ladunek dodatkowy - additional charge, augmented charge, augmented cartridge
ladunek minowy - mined charge
ladunek miotajacy - propellant charge
ladunek niezrownowazony - unbalanced charge
ladunek pelny - full charge
ladunek polpelny - half charge
ladunek powiekszony - supercharge
ladunek prochu w woreczkach lub lusce - cartridge
ladunek przeciwblyskowy - flash-reducing charge
ladunek przenosny - portable charge
ladunek skupiony - concentrated charge
ladunek slaby - low charge
ladunek wewnetrzny do wysadzania budynkow - concussion charge
ladunek wiertniczy - borehole charge
ladunek wolnoprzylozony - cutting charge
ladunek wybuchowy - explosive charge
ladunek wybuchowy kruszacy - (artillery) bursting charge
ladunek wybuchowy pocisku - filling
ladunek wydluzony - extended charge
ladunek zmniejszony - reduced charge
ladunku, odpalenie - firing charge
lacznikowy (a,e) : oficer lacznikowy - Liason Officer
lacznosc - contact, intercommunications, (signals) communications
lacznosc drutowa - cable
lacznosc radiowa - wireless telegraphy
lacznosc miedzy dwiema jednostkami - liason between two units
 nawiazac lacznosc - to establish communications
 stracona lacznosc - lost contact
lacznosci, szergowiec - Signalman, signaller
lodz - boat
lodz motorowa - motorboat
lodz podwodna - submarine, U-boat
lodz ratunkowa - lifeboat
lodz szturmowa - assault boat
lup bojenny - booty
luska naboju - case, cartridge case
luska pocisku - shell
luski - empties
luski tekturowej, obsada - cartridge base
macierzyste, lotnisko - parent station
manewr - manoeuvre, movement
manewr kleszczowy - pincer movement
manewr oskrzydlajacy - out-flanking movement
manewr oskrzydlajacy (okrazajacy) - enveloping movement
manewr strategiczny - strategic movement
manewry - manoeuvres
manipulacyjna, przystawka - (air force) remote control
marsz bojowy na szerokim froncie - advance on a broad front
marszute; wybrac i rozpoznac dogodna marszute - to select and reconnoitre a suitable route
martwy (a,e) - dead
martwy punkt - (vehicle) dead centre
 pole martwe - dead ground, blind area, defiladed zone
marynarka wojenna - Navy
marynarz - sailor, ordinary seaman, hand, naval rating, (slang) Jack Tar
masowy (a,e) - atak masowy - mass attack
masowy desant spadochronowy - mass parachute descent
masowe natarcie (uderzenie) - mass attack
maszerowac - to march
maszerowac czworkami - to march four abreast
maszerowac na bacznosc - to march at attention
maszerowac na spocznij - to march at ease
maszerowac szybciej niz nieprzyjaciel - to outmarch the enemy
maszerujacych oddzialow, odglos - tramp of troops
material - material
material ogniotrwaly - fireproof material
material pismienny - stationary
material wybuchowy - high explosive
material wybuchowy kruszacy - disruptive explosive, high explosive
material wybuchowy plastyczny - plastic high explosive
materialu wybuchowego, kostka - slab of explosive
materialem wybuchowym, napelnianie pocisku - filling
materialy pedne (potocznie benzyna) - petrol
materialy pirotechniczne - pyrotechnics
 punkt zaopatrzenia w materialy pedne - refilling point
materialow wybuchowych w rurze, ladunek - Bangalore torpedo
meldowac - to report
meldowac natychmiast - to report at once
meldowac o wypadku - report an accident
meldowac o zblizajacym sie nieprzyjacielem - to report enemy approaching
meldowac sie jako chory - to report sick
meldunek - report, dispatch, message
meldunek negatywny - negative report, "Nil" return
meldunek przyjeto do wiadomosci - report is acknowledged
meldunek szyfrowany - code message
meldunek taktyczny - intelligence combat report
meldunek zle zrozumiany - misread message
meldunkowy, pies - messenger dog
miasto - town
miasto otwarte - open town
 odbic miasto - to recapture a town
 zajac miasto - to occupy a town
miejsce postoju pod golym niebie - bivouac
miejsce wrazliwe - vulnerable point
miejsce zbiorki - assembly position, forming-up place
mieszanka wybuchowa - explosive mixture
mina - mine
mina akustyczna - acoustic mine
mina dryfujaca - drifting mine
mina gazowa - gas mine
mina glebinowa - depth charge
mina magnetyczna - magnetic mine
mina niedoladowana - undercharged mine
mina odpalona na odleglosc - observation mine
mina skazajaca - chemical mine
mina zaporowa - barring mine
 przeciwpancerna mina benzynowa - hedge-hopper
min; miotacz min - mine projector
 polawiacz min - minesweeper
 samolot do zrzucania min - mine-laying aircraft
 sonda do wykrywania min - dip needle, probing bar
 stawiacz min - minelayer
 uzbrajanie min - priming
 wykrywacz min - mine detector
mine, zakladac - to mine
minowy (a,e) ; komora minowa wykonana za pomoca kolejnych wybuchow - camouflet chamber
 ladunek minowy - mined charge
 pole minowe - minefield
 pulapka minowa na sily zywe - booby-trap
miotacz; miotacz gazu - (anti-gas) projector
miotacz min - mine projector
miotacz ognia - flame-thrower
miotajacy, ladunek - propellant charge
misja wojskowa - military mission
mniejsza skale, dzialanie na - minor operation
mocarstwo sprzymierzone - allied power
morski (a,e) - naval
morska artyleria - naval artillery
morska baza - naval base
morska latarnia - lighthouse
morska mila - nautical mile
morski port lotniczy - marine airport
 sad morski - Court of Admiralty
 sily morskie - naval forces
 sygnal morski "w potrzebie" - marine distress signal
 zandarm morski - (slang) crusher
morskiego; oddzialy desantu morskiego - sea-borne troops
 uderzenie desantu morskiego - sea-borne attack
morzami, panowanie nad - command of the seas
morzu, przewaga na - naval supremacy
most - bridge
 ciezki most pontonowy - pontoon bridge
 lekki most kratowy skladany - small box girder bridge
most kolejowy - railway bridge 
most lancuchowy - chain bridge
most nozycowy - scissors bridge
most polstaly - semi-permanent bridge
most rurowy prof. Inglisa - Inglis bridge
most szturmowy - Inglis tank assault
most torowy - track bridge, trackway bridge
most z tratew - raft bridge
most zwodzony - drawbridge
 podminowac most - to mine a bridge
 przerzucac most przez rzeke - to throw a bridge across a river
 skladany most kratowy - large box girder bridge
 tylny most z kolami w samochodzie trojosiowym - bogie
mostu; przerzucanie mostu przez rzeke - bridging a river 
mosty pojazdowe - mobile bridging equipment
motocykl - motorcycle
motocykl terenowy - tracked motorcycle
motocykl z przyczepka - motorcycle combination, motorcycle with side-car
motocykl z przyczepka uzbrojony w l.k.m. - LMG (light machine gun) combination
mozdzierz - mortar
mozdzierz 3 calowy - 3 inch mortar
mozdzierz okopowy - trench mortar
msza polowa - field mass
mundur - uniform, dress
mundur galowy - full dress
mundur polowy - battledress
mundur wyjsciowy - service dress
mundurowa, kurtka - tunic
musztra bojowa - battle drill
musztry, plac do - drill square
mysliwiec - fighter
mysliwiec dwusilnikowy - twin-engine fighter
misliwiec nocny - night fighter
nabojowa; komora nabojowa - chamber
 opora nabojowa lufy - cartridge rim stop
nabojowej, wycior do komory - chamber cleaning bristle brush
naboj - cartridge, round of ammunition
naboj bezdymny - smokeless cartridge
naboj do broni szybkostrzelnej - quick-firing cartridge
naboj ostry - live round
naboj scalony - cartridge
naboj smugowy - tracer cartridge
naboj sygnalowy - Verey (Very) light
naboj slepy - blank cartridge, drill cartridge
naboj sygnalowy (rakieta wystrzeliwana z pistoletu) - (signals) signal cartridge
naboj swietlny - illuminating cartridge
naboj wiertniczy - blasting
nacierac - to charge, to dash at
nacierajacych, poza zasiegiem - beyond the reach of the attackers
nacisnac jezyk spustowy - to press the trigger
Naczelny Wodz - Commander-in-Chief
nadajnik - transmitter, sender
nadajnik krotkofalowy - short-wave transmitter
nadajnik radiowy - radio transmitter
nadziei, zupelnie bez - (slang) completely cheesed
najlepszy w polu - second to none in the field
najstarszy stopniem oficer - senior officer
nakaz aresztowania - warrant
nakazana os marszu - centre line
nalot - raid, air raid
 wykonac nalot - to raid
napotkac opor - to encounter opposition
naprzod - forward, ahead
 daleko naprzod - well in advance
 pelna para naprzod - full speed ahead
 posuwac sie naprzod - to move forward, to forward
 przec naprzod - to push forward, to press forward
 szybkie posuwanie sie naprzod - swift advance
naramienne, sznury - aiguilletes
naramiennik - shoulder strap, epaulet
narciarskie, oddzialy - ski-troops
nasilenie ognia - rate of fire
 wzmoc nasilenie ognia - to intensify the rate of fire
nastawienie wroga - hostile attitude
nasycenie ognia - volume of fire
natarcie - attack, dash
natarcie jednolite - homogenous attack
natarcie nieoczekiwane - unexpected attack 
natarcie od czola - frontal attack
natarcie od strony slonca - down sun attack
natarcie od tylu - attack from the rear
natarcie osiagnelo swoj cel - attack pressed home
natarcie pozorne - feigned attack
natarcie przygotowane - deliberate attack
natarcie  z ruchu - attack on the move
 odlozyc natarcie - to postpone an attack
 odrzucic natarcie - to drive back an attack
 podjac natarcie - to assume the attack
 przeprowadzic natarcie do konca (do pomyslnego rezultatu) - to press home an attack
 rozpoczac natarcie - to launch an attack
 skoncentrowane natarcie - mass attack 
 wytrzymac natarcie - to sustain an attack
natarcia; koncentracja oddzialow do - massing for attack
 przystepowac do natarcia - about to attack
natezenie - intensity
natezenie ognia - density of fire
 oslabic natezenie ognia - to slacken fire
 wzmoc natezenie ognia - to intensify the rate of fire
nauka slepy podchodzenia - blind approach training
nawiazac stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to establish (first) contact with the enemy
 ponownie nawiazac stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to re-establish contact with the enemy
nawiazanie lacznosci z wlasnymi oddzialami przy pomocy lotnika - contact reconnaissance
nekajacy, ogien - harassing fire
niczyja, strefa - no-man's land
niebezpieczna, strefa - dangerous zone
niebroniona, przeprawa - undefended river crossing
niecelny, ogien - inaccurate fire
nieczynny - out of action
Niemiec - (slang) Jerry, Fritz
nienadajacy sie do sluzby wojskowej - unfit for military service
nieprzyjaciel - enemy, foe, adversary
nieprzyjaciela, powstrzymac posuwanie sie - to check the enemy's advance
 scigac nieprzyjaciela - to chase the enemy
nieprzyjacielem, byc w stycznosci z - to be in contact with the enemy
 ponownie nawiazac ztycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to re-establish contact with the enemy
 pozostawac w stycznosci z nieprzyjacielem - to remain in contact with the enemy
 stracic stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to lose touch with the enemy
 zwiazac sie z nieprzyjacielem - to engage the enemy
niespodzany ruch w przod - sudden advance
niestrzezony, oboz - unguarded camp
niewlasciwe zachowanie sie - misconduct
niewola - captivity
niewybuch - unexploded shell, blind bomb, blind projectile, misfire, (slang) dud
niewypal - misfire
niewyszkolony - untrained
niezdolnosci, stopien - degree of disablement
niezdolny do dzialania - out of action
niezdolny do sluzby wojskowej - unfit for military service
nisczenia doraznie wykonane (metoda szybka) - hasty demolitions
niszczenia glowne - deferred demolitions
niszczenia o znaczeniu strategicznym wzgl. operacyjnym - strategical demolitions
niszczenia obronne - defensive demolitions
niszczenia w obliczu nieprzyjaciela - final demolitions
niszczenia zaczepne - offensive demolitions
niszczenia zaczepne na przedpolu - demolition in protracted operations
niszczenia zwczasu przygotowane - deliberate demolitions
niszczyciel - destroyer
nitkowy lunety, krzyz - cross-hairs
nocy, pod oslona - under cover of night
nosic bron na ramieniu - to shoulder arms
obciazenie ruchome - live load
obejmujacy wszystkie oddzialy - embracing all troops
obejscie - turning movement
obejsc - to outflank, to loop up
obezwladnienie - neutralization, disablement
obiekt bombardowania - bombing target
obiekt natarcia - objective
obiekt wojskowy - military objective
obiazd sluzbowy - tour of duty
objac dowodztwo - to assume command
oblezenie - siege
obliczenie danych - prediction
oblozyc barak workami z piaskiem - to sandbag a hut
obozowanie - encampment
oboz - camp, encampment, leaguer
oboz koncentracyjny - concentration camp
oboz niestrzezony - unguarded camp
oboz personelu bez przydzialu - (airforce) non-effective pool
oboz staly - permanent camp
oboz tymczasowy - temporary camp
 rozbijac oboz - to pitch a camp
obracalna wiezyczka strzelnicza - revolving gun turret
obracanie wszystkiego za soba w perzyne - scorched-earth policy
obrona - defense
obrona czynna - active defence
obrona doraznie gotowana - rushed-up defence
obrona gietka - flexible defence
obrona na miejscu - static defence
obrona przeciwgazowa - anti-gas defence
obrona przeciwlotnicza - anti-aircraft defence
obrona przeciwlotnicza bierna - passive air defence
obrona przeciwlotnicza czynna - active air defence
obrona stala - static defence
obrona w glab - defence in depth
obrona wysunieta - outer defence
obrona zorganizowana - organized defence, consolidated defence
obrone, teren zapewniajacy nalezyta - ground providing adequate defence
obronie, stawac w - to defend
obrony; cwiczenie obrony przeciwlotniczej - air defence exercise
 linia obrony - line of defence
 luka w inii obrony - gap in the defence line
 nie do obrony - untenable
 pierwszy rzut obrony - forward defended localities
 szkielet obrony - backbone of the defence, skeleton of the defence
 uporczywosc obrony - tenacity of the defence
obronny (a,e) - defensive
 niszczenia obronne - defensive demolitions
 wsparcie obronny - appui
 wyrownac linie obronny - to rectify the defence lines
 wywiad obronny - counter-espionage
obsada - fitting, mounting
 dobra obsada oficerska - well officered
obsada luski tekturowej - cartridge base
obsada zamka - breech ring
obsady odcinka, sila - linear strength
obsadzenie i umocnienie (zdobytego terenu) - consolidation
obsadzic zaloga - to garrison
obserwacja - observation
obserwacja boczna - flank observation
obserwacja osiowa - (artillery) observation, line battery to target
obserwacja powietrzna - air observation
obserwacja przy naglym oswietleniu - flash spotting
obserwacja w ruchu - observation while on the move
obserwacja wysunieta - forward observation
obserwacja zlozona - (artillery) cross observation
obserwacji; ogien z obserwacji - observed fire
 podstawowy punkt obserwacji - (artillery) zero point
obserwacyjno-meldunkowy przeciwlotniczy, posterunek - visual plotting station
obserwacyjny; posterunek obserwacyjny - observation post
 samolot obserwacyjny artylerii - Air Observation Post
 wysuniety oficer obserwacyjny - (artillery) Forward Observation Officer
obserwacyjnego, akta punktu - recording data (at the observation post)
obserwator- (airforce) air observer, observer
obsluga - crew
obsluga broni maszynowej - automatic team
obsluga dziala - (artillery) gun numbers
obsluga latajaca (airforce) - flying personnel
obsulga naziemna - (airforce) - ground personnel
obsluga parowozu - (military movement) - engine crew
obslugi parowozu, czlonek - engineman
obslugiwac dzialo - (artillery) to serve a gun, to mount a gun
obszar - area
obszar etapowy - line of communications area
obszar zagazowany - gassed area
obszar zakazany - prohibited area, barring area
obszar zaminowany - mine area
obszarem, panowanie nad pewnym - domination over a certain area
obszary tylowe - back areas
ocena prawdopodobnego dzialania nieprzyjaciela - appreciation of likely enemy action
ocena sil nieprzyjacielskich - estimating enemy forces
ochotniczo, zglosic sie - to volunteer
ochotniczy, zaciag - voluntary enlistment
ochotnik - volunteer
ochotnika, zaciagnac sie na - to enlist as a volunteer
ochrona - protection, shelter
ochrona osobista - individual protection
ochrone przed bombami, dajacy - bomb-proof
ochronne, barwy - shadow-painting
 okulary ochronne - eye-shields
oczekiwac posilkow - to expect reinforcements
oczy, rzucajacy sie w - salient
oczyszczac (teren z nieprzyjaciela) to mop up
oczyszczac droge - to clear a way
oczyszczajaca, akcja - mopping-up operation
odbezpieczona, bomba - live bomb
odbic miasto - to recapture a town
odbic teren - to recover ground
odbitkowy, strzal - ricochet
odciac - to cut off, to isolate, to intercept
odcinek - sector, section
odcinek kola - segment
 przylegly odcinek sasiedni - adjoining sector
odcinka, sila obsady - linear strength
odcyfrowac - to decipher
odczepik - to detach
odczuwac brak amunijci - to suffer shortage of arms
odczynnik - detector
 odczynnik chemiczny - chemical agent
odczytywanie zdjec lotniczych - interpretation of aerial photographs
oddalenie sie z oddzialu, samowolne - absence without leave
oddzial, troop, unit, draft, detachment, party, squad, branch
oddzial burzacy - Demolition Squad
oddzial delegowany - representative fraction
oddzial desantowy - landing party
oddzial do naprawy linii - (signals) breakdown party
oddzial kapielowy (laznia polowa) - bath unit
oddzial kladzcy zaslony dymne - smoke troops
oddzial lotny - mobile unit
oddzial odosobniony - isolated unit
oddzial operacyjno-transportowy w sztabie generalnego kwatermistrza - Movement Section of the Quartermaster General's Branch
oddzial oslonowy - covering party
oddzial pieszy - infantry unit
oddzial pontonowy - pontoon detachment
oddzial przedni strazy przedniej - vanguard
oddzial przeprawowy - (engineers) boat carrying party
oddzial ratowniczy - rescue party
oddzial ratunkowy - (navy) damage control party
oddzial reperacyjny - (motorized) Light Aid Depot
oddzial rozbrajaczy bomb - Bomb Disposal Squad
oddzial rozpoznawczy - reconnaissance unit, reconnoitring detachment
oddzial szturmowy - storm troop
oddzial szturmowy (przeznaczony na stracenie) - forlorn hope
oddzial techniczo-transportowy w sztabie generalnego kwatermistrza - Transportation Section of the Quartermaster General's Branch
oddzial wojskowy (potocznie) - body of men
oddzial wyborowy - storm troop, picked troop
oddzial zwiadowczy - reconnoitring detachment
oddzialow, dyslokacja - disposition of troops
oddzialu, grupa przedstawicieli - representative fraction
 postawa oddzialu - bearing of a unit
 wyladowanie oddzialu ze statkow - disembarkation
 zamaskowac ruch oddzialu - to conceal the movement of troops
oddzialy gorskie - mountain troops
oddzialy graniczne (kresowe) - border troops
oddzialy kolonialne - colonial troops
oddzialy lacznosci - Signals
oddzialy narciarskie - ski-troops
oddzialy nieregularne - irregulars
oddzialy niewyprobowane - untried troops
oddzialy niezdyscyplinowane - undisciplined troops
oddzialy pomocnicze - auxiliary troops
oddzialy powietrzne - airborne troops
oddzialy szturmowe - assault troops, shock troops
oddzialy tubylcze - native troops
oddzialy wlasne - own troops
oddzialy wojsk na wielbladach - camel corps
oddzialy wysuniete - foremost troops
oddzialy wycofujace sie- retiring troops
 zbierace oddzialy rozproszone - to gather dispersed troops
Oddzial II - Intelligence Corps.
odglos maszerujacych oddzialow - tramp of troops
odkomenderowanie - detachment
odlamek - splinter
odlamki (pocisku) - fragments
odlamkow, deszcz - rain of splinters
odmaszerowac! - dismiss!
odporny na pociski - bullet-proof
odsalutowac - to return a salute
odszkodowanie wojenne - war indemnity
odszyfrowac - to decode, to decipher
odtrabiono! - march at ease!
odwolac rozkaz - to cancel an order, to revoke an order, to countermand
odwolac z urlopu - to recall from leave
odwolawczy, sygnal - recall signal
odwod - reserve
odwod ruchomy - mobile reserve
odwody dywizyjne - divisional reserves
 rzucic odwody do boju - to throw in reserves
odwrotowa, walka - rearguard action
odwrot - withdrawl, retreat
 na odwrot - backwards
 oslaniac odwrot - to cover a retreat
odzew - countersign
odzyskac teren - to recover ground
ofensywa - offensive
ofensywe, podjac - to assume the offensive
 wznowic ofensywe - to renew an offensive
oficer - officer
 najstarszy stopniem oficer - senior officer
oficer artylerii - artillery officer
oficer barakowy - Officer in charge of Barracks
oficer bez przydzialu - half-pay officer
oficer broni - Weapon Officer, (slang) Mr. Fireworks
oficer dowodzacy - Commanding Officer
oficer dyplomowany - officer passed staff college
oficer ewidencyjny - Officer in charge of Records
oficer flagowy - (navy) Flag Officer
oficer gazowy - Gas Defence Officer
oficer informacyjny - Intelligence Officer
oficer kasynowy i zywnosciowy - Messing Officer
oficer kawalerii - Cavalry Officer
oficer kierownictwa transportow wojskowych (oficer wojskowej sluzby komunikacyjnej) - Movement Control Staff Officer
oficer-lekarz - Medical Officer
oficer lacznikowy - Liaison Officer
oficer lacznikowy do lotnictwa - Air Liaison Officer
oficer lacznosci - Signal Officer
oficer majacy nadzor nad ostrym strzelaniem - instructor of gunnery
oficer meteorologiczny - Meteorlogical Officer
oficer mlodszy - junior officer, subaltern
oficer nadetatowy - supernumerary officer
oficer nadzorujacy - superintending officer
oficer nadzorujacy ladowanie desantu - Military Landing Officer, (navy) beach-master
oficer ogniowy - (artillery) gun position officer
oficer ordynansowy - Aide-de-Camp
oficer oswiatowy - Education Officer
oficer piechoty - infantry officer
oficer pocztowy - Postal Officer
oficer poligonowy - (artillery) instructor of gunnery
oficer portowy - Embarkation Officer
oficer prowadzacy gospodarke pieniezna w pododdziale - Paying Officer
oficer rachunkowy - accounting officer, (airforce) Stores Officer
oficer sluzbowy - Orderly Officer
oficer sportowy - Physical Training Officer
oficer sztabowy - Field Officer, staff officer
oficer techniczy - Mechanical Transport Officer, Engineer Officer
oficer techniczy pulku - (motorised) Technical Adjutant
oficer transportowo-kolejowy - Railway Traffic Officer
oficer transportowo-portowy - Embarkation Staff Officer
oficer ustalajacy szkody ludnosci cywilnej w zwiazku z dzialaniem wojska - Compensation Officer
oficer warsztatowy - Workshop Officer
oficer w stanie spoczynku - retired officer
oficer wyladowczy - Detraining Officer
oficer wywiadowczy - Intelligence Officer
oficer zaopatrzenia w zywnosc, materialy pedne i smary - Supply Officer
oficer zwiadowczy dywizjonu - (artillery) Command Post Officer
 pierwszy oficer - (slang) Jimmy the One
 portowy oficer zaladowczy - Embarkation Staff Officer
 wysuniety oficer obserwacyjny (artillery) Forward Observation Officer
oficera; przeniesc oficera w stan spoczynku - to pension an officer
 zdegradowac oficera - to reduce an officer to the ranks
oficerow; korpus oficerow wywiadu zaczepnego i obronnego - Intelligence Corps
 rejestr oficerow marynarki wojennej - Navy List
oficerski stopien czasu wojny - emergency commission
ogien - fire, flame
ogien artyleryjski - artillery fire
ogien bezposredni - direct fire
ogien boczny - flanking fire
ogien celny - accurate fire
ogien ciagly - continuous fire
ogien ciagly poszerzany w lewo i w prawo - swinging traverse fire
ogien czolowy - frontal fire
ogien do celu polozonego skosnie do kierunku strzelania - oblique fire
ogien do wstrzeliwania - ranging fire
ogien dzial przeciwlotniczych (celem rozbicia ugrupowania samolotow nieprzyjacielskich i zmuszenia ich do przedwczesnego zrzucania bomb) - deterrent fire
ogien gwaltowny - rapid fire
ogien koszacy - grazing fire, raking fire
ogien na odleglosc szturmowa - point-blank fire
ogien nekajacy - harassing fire, desultory fire
ogien niecelny - inaccurate fire
ogien niemieckiej obrony przeciwlotniczej - (slang) flak
ogien nieskuteczny - ineffective fire
ogien niszczacy - (artillery) destructive fire
ogien obezwladniajacy - neutralizing fire, suppressing fire
ogien obserwowany - observed fire
ogien oslaniajacy - covering fire
ogien podluzny - enfilade fire
ogien pojedynczy - single-round fire
ogien ponad glowami - overhead fire
ogien poszerzany - traversing fire
ogien poszerzany do celu skosnego - oblique traversing fire
ogien poszerzany, wykonywany jako szereg ogni punktowych - traversing fire
ogien posredni - indirect fire
ogien przeciwlotniczy - anti-aircraft fire, ack-ack fire
ogien przeszukujacy - searching fire
ogien przygotowany - prepared fire
ogien skuteczny - effective fire, (artillery) fire for effect
ogien sprzezonych szybkostrzelnych karabinow maszynowych - pom-pom fire
ogien smiertelny - deadly fire
ogien torujacy lacznie z oslaniajacym (ognie wsparcia) - (artillery) covering fire
ogien wykonywany ze stanowiska wysoko polozonego - plunging fire
ogien wzbraniajacy - harassing fire
ogien z obserwacji - observed fire
ogien zapobiegawczy - (artillery) counter-preparation
ogien zaporowy - (artillery) defensive fire, S O S, barrage
ogien zaporowy (obserwowany) - curtain fire
ogien zbiezny - convergent fire
ogien zespolowy - group firing
ogien zwalczania artylerii - counter-battery fire
 przerwac ogien - to cease fire
 przerwij ogien! - cease fire!
 skoncentrowac gien - to concentrate the fire
 zesrodkowac ogien - to concentrate the fire
ogni, rodzaje - methods of firing
 tabela ogni - task table
ognia, ciagle serie - continuous bursts of fire
 kierunek ognia - direction of fire
 miotacz ognia - flame-thrower
 nasilenie ognia - rate of fire
 nasycenie ognia - volume of fire
 natezenie ognia - density of fire
 ognia! - fire!
 oslabic natezenie ognia - to slaken fire
 pas ognia - belt of fire
 przygotowanie ognia - prediction
 rozlozenie ognia wszerz - (artillery) distribution
 strefa ognia - zone of fire
 szkola ognia - (artillery) firing practice
 sredni punkt ognia - (artillery) mean point of impact
 ustalona siec ognia - prearranged fire scheme
 wal ognia - belt of fire
 wiazka ognia - cone of fire
 zastosowanie ognia - application of fire
 zwiekszyc natezenie ognia - to increase the density of fire
 zadanie ognia przez lotnika - call for fire
ognie obrony (ogien zapobiegawczy i ogien wstrzymujacy) - defensive fire
ogniem, kierowanie - fire control
ogniowe punktowanie terenu - registration by shooting
okop - trench
 rolowac okop - to rake a trench
okopac - to entrech
okopy - field works
okopywac sie - to dig in
okopywanie namiotu - tent trenching
okrazenie - encirclement, lap
 zaciesniajace okrazenie - tightening encirclement
okres sluzby - term of service
okreslanie sposobem obliczeniowym - (artillery) computing
okreslanie wlasciwosci dzial - (artillery) calibration
okreg wzbroniony - prohibited area
opatrzyc rane - to dress a wound
opierac sie - to offer resistance
opor - resistance, opposition
 napotkac opor - to encounter opposition
 przelamac opor - to overcome opposition
 przygotowany opor - prepared resistance
 rozpaczliwy opor - exasperating resistance
 slaby opor - slight opposition
 stawiac opor - to offer resistance
 wzmocnic opor - to stiffen resistance
 zaciety opor - stubborn resistance
 zdecydowany opor - stout resistance
 zmiazdzyc opor nieprzyjaciela - to crush enemy's opposition
oporu; dzialanie na wypadek napotkania oporu - action on meeting resistance
 glowna linia oporu - main line of resistance
 gniazdo oporu - rampart, stronghold, nest of resistance
 linia oporu - line of resistance
 linia glownego oporu - line of main resistance
 na wypadek napotkania oporu - in case of meeting opposition
 osrodek oporu - centre of resistance
 pozycja glownego oporu - main defence position, line of foremost defended localities
 punkt oporu - strong point, defended locality
 punkt wzgl. osrodek oporu - point of appui
 punkt oporu (przygotowany do obrony na wszystkie strony) - hedgehog
 strefa glownego oporu - main defensive zone
opuscic bandere (sztandar) - to haul down the colours
ordynans - batman
osiagnac zwyciestwo - to gain victory
osiasc na mieliznie - to ground
osie (linie) komunikacyj - line of communications
oskrzydlajacy - outflanking
 manewr oskrzydlajacy - outflanking movement
 manewr oskrzydlajacy (okrazajacy) - enveloping movement
oskrzydlic - to outflank
ostro zganic - to shoot down in flames
ostrzeliwac - (artillery) to bombard
ostrzeliwac z karabina maszynowego - to machine-gun
ostrzeliwanie; kontynuowac ostrzeliwanie - (slang) to plug away
ostrzeliwanie artyleryjskie - artillery bombardment
oslepic dymem - to blind with smoke
otrzymac awans - to get promotion
otrzyamac przeniesienie - to get a transfer
otrzymac urlop -to get leave
paliwo - fuel
paliwo plynne - liquid fuel
paliwo przeciwdetonacyjne - anti-detonating fuel
paliwo syntetyczne - synthetic fuel
paliwo z mieszanki alkoholowej - alcohol-blended fuel
 zbiornik paliwo plynnego - fuel-tank
pancernik - battleship, dreadnought
pancerny - armoured
 plyta pancerna - armour-plate
 szwadron pancerny - armoured squadron, tank squadron
pancerz - armour
 przebijajacy pancerz - armour-piercing
 uzbroic w pancerz - to armour
panewka - shell 
panewka lozyska - (armoured) bearing shell
paniczna ucieczka - rout
panowanie nad morzami - command of the seas
panowanie nad pewnym obszarem - domination over a certain area
partyzantka - guerilla warfare
patrol - patrol
patrol bojowy - battle patrol
patrol nocny - night patrol
patrol pieszy - foot patrol
patrol regulacji ruchu - traffic-control patrol
patrolowiec - patrol boat
pelna para naprzod - full steam ahead
pelniacy funkcje - acting
pelnomocnictwo - warrant
pelny wysilek - all-out effort
piechota (piech.) - infantry
piechota przewozona - lorried infantry, lorry-borne infantry, truck-borne infantry
piechota zmotoryzowana - mechanized infantry, motorized infantry
piechur - (slang) foot-slogger
pierwsza pomoc - first aid
pieszo - on foot
 posuwajacy sie pieszo - moving on foot
pisarz (kancelista) - clerk
pistolet - pistol
pistolet automatyczny - automatic pistol
pistolet polautomatyczny - semi-automatic pistol
pistolet maszynowy - machine carbine
placowka - outpost
placowka o charakterze warty zewnetrznej - local covering party
placowka regulacji ruchu - traffic-control post
platanina - entanglement
pluton - platoon, troop, (artillery) section
pluton pomiarowy dzwiekowy - (artillery) sound-ranging group
pluton pomiarowy wzrokowy - (artillery) - flash-spotting group
pluton techniczno-ratowniczy - (mechanized) recovery section
pluton techniczny kompanii lacznosci kwatery glownej dywizji - (signals) maintenance troop 
plaszcz; krotki cieply plaszcz oficerski - (slang) British warm
plaszcz pocisku - bullet envelope
plaszcz przeciwdeszczowy - trench coat
plaszcz przeciegazowy - anti-gas cape
plaszcz wojskowy - greatcoat
ploza lufy -gun guide
plytkie urgrupowanie - shallow formation
pobudka - reveille
pobudzacz - (artillery) exploder, (engineers) primer
pociagnac jezyk spustowy - to pull the trigger
pocisk - projectile, shell
pocisk dum-dum - expanding bullet, soft-nosed bullet
pocisk dymny - smoke shell, smoke-emitting projectile
pocisk gazowy - gas shell, chemical shell
pocisk malokalibrowy - bullet
pocisk oswietlajacy - star shell
pocisk przebijajacy - penetrating bullet
pocisk przeciwpancerny - armour-piercing shot
pocisk smugowy - tracer shell, tracer bullet
pociskami, zryty - riddled with bullets
pociskow na dzialo (karabin) na minute, ilosc - rounds per gun per minute
podawac z rak do rzk - to pass
podchorazy - Ensign
podchorazy marynarki - midshipman, (slang) snotty
Podchorazych; Szkola Podchorazych Rezerwy - Officer Cadet Training Unit
 uczen Szkoly Podchorazych - Officer Cadet
poddac sie - to surrender
poddanie sie - surrender
poddania sie, zmusic nieprzyjaciela do - to force the enemy to surrender
podkomendny - subordinate
podoficer - non-commisioned officer
podoficer sluzbowy - orderly non-commisioned officer
podoficerowie i szeregowcy - other ranks
podstawa wyjsciowa - forming-up place
pojedynczne zadanie wykonane przez samolot - sortie
pojedynek artyleryjski - artillery duel
pojedynek samolotow - dogfight
pokaz lotniczy - air display
pole - field, area
pole (takze w lufie) - land
pole dzialania - field
pole martwe - dead ground, defiladed zone
pole minowe - minefield
pole ostrzalu - field of fire
pole razenia - dangerous zone
pole rozrzutu - (artillery) zone of dispersion
pole smierci - beaten zone
pole walki - battlefield
pole widzenia - field of sight
 przejscie przez pole minowe - lane (through a minefield)
 wolne pole ostrzalu - unobstructed field of view
polu, najlepszy w - second to none in the field
 w otwartym polu - in the open
polec ( w boju) - to be killed in action
polegly - killed in action
poligon - experimental range, practice artillery ground
poligonowy, oficer - (artillery) instructor of gunnery
polowy (a, e) - field
 kasa polowa - Field-Cash
 lornetka polowa - field-glasses
 mundur polowy - battle-dress
polowa jednostka chirurgiczna - field surgical unit
polowa stacja opatrunkowa - field dressing station
 saperskie roboty polowe - field engineering
 umocnienia polowe - entrenchment
polawiacz min - mine-sweeper
polaczone dzialanie sil zbrojnych - combined operation
polaczyc sie z silami glownymi - to rejoin the main forces
polowy, sztandar do - half-mast colours
polozenie - position, situation, site, emplacement, circumstance
polozenie (punkt w rozkazodawstwie) - information
polozenie plynne - fluid situation
polozenie poczatkowe celu (w chwili oddania strzalu) - present position of a target
polozenie wzgledne - reference position
polozenia, ocena - appreciation of situation
pomiar terenu - land survey
pomoc lekarska - treatment
 pierwsza pomoc - first-aid
pomocnik - assistance, adjutant
pomyslne ladownaie - safe landing
pomyslne warunki atmosferyczne - favourable weather conditions
ponowic ofensywe - to renew an offensive
ponownie nawiazac stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to re-establish contact with the enemy
port - port, harbour
port morski lotniczy - marine airport
porzadek (szyk) marszu - order of march
 utrzymywac porzadek - to police
 wzorowy porzadek - perfect order
posilki - reinforcements
 zapewnic sobie posilki - to secure reinforcements
posilkow, oczekiwac - to expect reinforcements
pospolite ruszenie - levy in mass
postawa oddzialow - bearing of the troops
postawe zasadnicza, przyjac - to spring to attention
 stac w postawie na spocznij - to stand at ease
 stac w postawie zasadniczej - to stand at attention
posterunek - sentry, post
posterunek obserwacyjny - observation post
 przeciwlotniczy posterunek obserwacyjno-meldunkowy - visual plotting station
 posterunek regulacji ruchu - pointsman
postepowanie dyscyplinarne - disciplinary action
postepowanie normalne - normal procedure
 wszczac postepowanie dyscyplinarne - to take disciplinary action
postoj pod golym niebie - bivouac
posuwac sie bez przeszkod - to advance unchecked
posuwac sie naprzod - to move forward, to advance
posuwac sie naprzod mimo ciezkich start - to advance despite heavy losses
posuwac sie naprzod mimo oporu nieprzyjaciela - to advance despite enemy resistance
posuwac sie od zaslony do zaslony - to advance from cover to cover
posuwajacy sie na przedzie - moving ahead
posuwajacy sie pieszo - moving on foot
posuwajacy sie z tylu - moving behind
posuwanie sie naprzod - advance
 powstrzymac posuwanie sie nieprzyjaciela - to hold (check) enemy's advance
 szybkie posuwanie sie naprzod - swift advance
poszukiwac skrzydel - feeling for flanks
poscig - pursuit, persecution, chase
 ogolny poscig - all-out pursuit
potracenie (z zoldu) - deduction (from pay)
potwierdzenie z innych zrodel - confirmation from other sources
potyczka - engagement, encounter, combat, skirmish, brush
potykacz - (sappers) trip wire
powazne sily - appreciable forces
powazne zagrozenie - serious threat
powodzenia, dazyc do wykorzystania - to seek to exploit success
powojenny - post-war
powolac do sluzby czynnej - to enlist
poza sluzba - off duty
poza zasiegiem ognia - beyond the range of fire
pozostawac w stycznosci z nieprzyjacielem - to remain in contact with the enemy
pozostawic za soba - to leave behind, to outdistance
pozostawiony do pozniejszego zabrania (rozbity czog itp.) - left for subsequent collection
pozycja - position, standing, entry
pozycja glownego oporu - line of foremost defended localities, main defense position
pozycja kleczaca - kneeling position
pozycja kluczowa - key position
pozycja niebroniona - undefended position
pozycja przygotowana - prepared position
pozycja ryglowa - switch line
pozycja slaba - vulnerable position
pozycja umocniona - consolidated position, fortified position, prepared position
pozycja wyjsciowa - initial position
pozycje, uderzenie na umocniona - attack against fortified position
pozycje, wedrzec sie na - to penetrate into a position
 zajac pozycje uderzeniem od tylu - to take a position from the rear
pozycji, wywalczyc (sobie) droge w glab - to fight one's way into a position
 przedni skraj pozycji glownej - forward edge of main position
pojsc w rozsypke - to scatter
prawo wojenne - martial law
prezentuj bron! - present arms!
proch - gunpowder, powder
proch wolnopalny (czarny) - slow-burning powder
 nitroglicerynowy proch bezdymny - cordite
prochownia - powder magazine
promien zniszczenia - radius of destruction
proporczyk -ensign
prosty zolnierz - (slang) Tommy
przebieg strzelania - fire discipline
przebojem - by force
przebywac odleglosci - to cover distances
przebywanie przeszkod - surmounting obstacles
przeciwdzialac - to counter
przeciwdzialaniu nieprzyjaciela, ladowanie (desantu) przy czynnym - opposed landing
przeciwnatarcie - counter-attack, deliberate counter-attack
przeciwprzygotowanie - counter-preparation
przeciwuderzenie - counter-attack, counter-stroke
przec naprzod - to push (press) forward
przedluzenie urlopu - extension of leave
przedmiot natarcia - objective
przedmiot terenowy - feature
 stuczny przedmiot terenowy - artificial feature
przedmoscie - bridgehead
przedstawic do awansu - to recommend for promotion
przedwczesny wybuch - premature explosion
przedwojenny - pre-war
przeglad - review, inspection, examination, muster, parade
przeglad broni - examination of arms
przeglad chorych - sick parade
przeglad lekarski - medical examination
przeglad roczny - annual inspection
przeglad spadochronu (po uzyciu go w powietrzu) - inspection after descent
przeglad wyposazenia osobistego - kit inspection
 codzienny przeglad - daily inspection
 miesieczny przeglad - monthly inspection
przegladowi lekarskiemu, poddac sie - to undergo medical examination
przegladu bron, do ! - examine arms !
przegrupowanie - re-grouping
przejac dowodztwo - to take over the command
przejac inicjatywe - to take the initiative
przejac pilotowanie samolotu - to take over the controls
przejac telegram (rozmowe telefoniczna) - to intercept a message
przejscie - crossing, gangway
przejscie przez pole minowe - lane (through a minefield)
przejscie wolne ! - pass, friend !
przejscia (nakazana rozkazem) linia - start line
przejsc - to pass, to cross
przejsc cenzure - to pass censorship
przejsc do dzialach zaczepnych - to pass on to the offensive
przejsc do nieprzyjaciela - to go over to the enemy
przejsc na terytorium nieprzyjaciela - to cross into enemy territory
przejsc przez dziennik personalny - to be gazetted
przejsc rzeke w brod - to ford a river
przekazac (sluzbe) - to hand over (duty)
przekazac wiadomosci do tylu - to pass back the information
przekroczyc termin urlopu - to overstay leave
przelamac - to break through
przeniesienie - transfer
 otrzymac przenieszenie - to get a transfer
przeniesc oficera w stan spoczynku - to pension an officer
przeniesc zolnierza do sluzby w koloniach - to shift a soldier overseas
przenikanie - infiltration, penetration
przenikanie wiadomosci - leakage of information
przeprawa - crossing
przeprawa niebroniona - undefended river crossing
przeprawa po lodzie - ice crossing
 budowa przepraw - bridging
 miejsce przepraw - crossing place
przeprawy przygotowane - deliberate bridging
przeprawy szturmowe - assault bridging
przerwa marszowa - rest
przerwa oddechowa - breathing pause
przerwa w bitwie - lull in the battle
 lot bez przerwy - non-stop flight
 wykrycie miejsca przerwy w obwodzie - pricker test
przerwij ogien ! - cease fire !
przerzucic most przez rzeke - to throw a bridge across a river
przesadne wychwalanie sie - (slang) shooting a line
przestac funkcjonowac (dzialac) - (slang) to pack up
przeszkoda - obstacle, bar, block, check, hindrance
przeszkoda (w odbiorze radiowym) - jamming
przeszkoda drogowa - road block
przeszkoda naturalna - natural obstacle
przeszkoda niepokryta ogniem - obstacle not covered by fire
przeszkoda przeciwpancerna naturalna (stuczna) - natural (artificial) anti-tank obstacle
przeszkoda stuczna - artificial obstacle
przeszkoda w terenie (ktora mozna przekroczyc za pomoca mostu) - gap
przeszkoda z drutu kolczastego - barbed-wire obstacle
przeszkoda z szyn - (sappers) rail barrier
przeszyc (lanca) - to lance
przescignac - to outdistance
przescignac na morzu - to outsail
przewaga liczebna - numerical superiority
przewaga na morzu - naval superiority
przewaga w powietrzu - air superiority
 miec przewage donosnosci - to outrange
 miec przewage ogniowa nad nieprzyjacielem - to outgun the enemy
przewazajacej sile, w - superior in number
przewidywane straty - anticipated losses
przewoz konny - horse transport
przewoz motorowy - motor transport
przewoz okretowy - shipping
przewyzszac nieprzyjaciela pod kazdym wzgledem - to outclass the enemy
przezbroic - to rearm
przychwytywacz (samolot mysliwski do przychwytywania) - interceptor fighter
przyczolek mostowy - abutment, bridgehead
przydzial - allotment
przydzial (ludzi i srodkow transportowych, nie broni i sluzb) - allocation
przydzial celow - assigning of targets
przygotowanie artyleryjskie - artillery preparation
przygotowanie do akcji (dzialania) - preparation for action
przygotowanie dziala do strzalu - manning the gun
przygotowanie ognia - prediction
przygwozdzic w terenie (do ziemi) - to pin to the ground
przyjac bitwe (walke) - to accept a battle
przyjac do wiadomosci - to acknowledge
przypadkowe starcie - accidental engagement
przypuszczalny czas osiagniecia danego punktu - estimated time of arrival at a given point
przypuszczalne straty - anticipated losses
przysiega wiernosci - oath of loyalty
przysiega wojskowa - military oath
przystan - harbour, landing, landing stage
przystepowac do natarcia - about to attack
przystosowac sie do terenu - to adapt oneself to the ground
pulapka - trap
pulapka minowa na sily zywe - booby-trap
pulapka przeciwpancerna - tank trap
pulk - regiment
pulk artylerii lekkiej - field regiment, Royal Artillery
pulk liniowy - line regiment
pulk piechoty (PP) - infantry regiment, foot regiment
pulk rozpoznawczy (wchodzacy w sklad dywizji pancernej) - armoured-car regiment
pulk rozpoznawczy dywizji piechoty - reconnaissance regiment
pulk wyborowy - crack regiment
pulku, historia - regimental records
punkt - point, paragraph
 charakterystyczny punkt w terenie - prominent landmark
 glowny punkt opatrunkowy - main dressing station
 najnizszy punkt terenu - nadir
 osiagnac punkt docelowy - to reach the destination
 podstawowy punkt obserwacji - (artillery) - zero point
 pulkowy punkt opatrunkowy - regimental aid post
punkt amunicyjny - ammunition point
punkt badaniowy - (sappers) test point
punkt benzynowy - petrol point
punkt celowania - aiming point
punkt dominujacy - outstanding point
punkt punkt dzoru - (artillery) zero point
punkt ewakuacyjny - casualty clearing station
punkt glownego wysilku - point of main effort
punkt koncowy linii - (sappers) terminal point
punkt kulminacyjny bitwy - tide of battle
punkt ladunkowy - loading point
punkt martwy - dead centre
punkt nawiazania - reference point, (artillery) bearing picket
punkt ogniskowy - focal point
punkt opatrunkowy - dressing station
punkt oporu - pint of appui, defended locality, strong point
punkt oporu ( przygotowany do obrony na wszystkie strony) - hedgehog
punkt podstawowy - reference point
punkt przciecia - point of intersection
punkt przekazowy - (sappers) relay post
punkt przeladunkowy amunicji z pociagow na samochody itp. (stacja zaopatrzywania) - railhead
punkt razenia - point of impact
punkt rozdzielczy zaopatrzenia - bulk breaking point
punkt rozejscia sie - dispersal point
punkt sanitarny - aid post
punkt stycznosci - junction point
punkt trygonometryczyny - trigonometrical point
punkt ustalony - fix
punkt widzenia - viewpoint
punkt wrzenia - boiling point
punkt wyjscia - base
punkt wymarszu - starting point
punkt wypadowy - forming-up place
punkt wyrozniajacy sie w terenie - outstanding point, prominent landmark
punkt zaladowania na pojazdy mechaniczne - embussing point
punkt zamarzania - freezing point
punkt zaopatrywania - supply point
punkt zaopatrywania w materialy pedne - refilling point
punkt zborny - rallying point
punkt zborny rannych zdolnych do marszu - walking wounded collecting point
 slaby punkt - weak point, weak spot
 sredni punkt ognia - (artillery) mean point
 sredni punkt rozprysku - (artillery) - mean point of burst
 terenowy punkt orientacyjny - landmark
 wysuniety punkt opatrunkowy - advanced dressing station
punkcie uderzenia, szybkosc w - terminal velocity
punktu obserwacyjnego, akta - recording data (at the observation post)
punktowanie; ogniowe punktowanie terenu - registration by shooting
 teoretyczne punktowanie terenu - silent registration
puszczac w obieg - to issue
puszkarz - gunsmith
raca -flare
raca spadochronowa - flare-chute
raca sygnalowa - signal cartridge
rada wojenna - war council
radio - wireless, radio
 nadawac przez radio clair'em - to wireless in clear
radiokomunikacja kierunkowa - directional radio communication
radiolatarnia - radio-beacon
radiolatarnia kierunkowa - bearing directional radio, course-indicating radio-beacon
radiolatarnia podejsciowa - approach beacon
radionamiernik - direction-finder
radioodbiornik - wireless set
radiostacja - wireless station
radiostacja nasluchujaca - listening set
radiostacja przenosna - portable wireless set
radiostacji, przystawka manipulacyjna przy - remote control
radiotelefonia - radio telefhony
radiotelefonista - radio-operator, wireless operator
radiotelegrafia - wireless telegraphy
radiotelegrafista - radio-operator, wireless operator
radioumiejscowienie - radio location
radiowy (a,e); aparat radiowy - wireless set
 cisza radiowa - wireless silence
 lacznosc radiowy - wireless telegraphy
 maszt radiowy - wireless aerial mast
 nadajnik radiowy - radio-transmitter
 nadawac audycje radiowy - to broadcast
radiowa, ustalenie polozenia samolotu droga - radio fix
radiowego; naturalne zakloczenie odbioru radiowego - interference
 szkielet metalowy aparatu radiowego - chassis
 sztuczne zaklocenie odbioru radiowego - jamming
 wlasciwe nastawienie odbiornika radiowego - accurate tuning
radiowej, stacja kierownicza w sieci - control station
 stacja podlegla sieci radiowej - out-station
radiowych, sluchac audycyj - to listen in
radiowym, przeszkody w odbiorze - interference
 zanik w odbiorze radiowym - fading
rakieta - rocket, Verey light,
rakieta ladownicza - aircraft landing flare
rakieta spadochronowa - parachute flare
rakieta sygnalowa - signal rocket, signal cartridge
rakieta wystrzelona z pistoletu - signal cartridge
rakietnica - signalling pistol, Verey pistol
ramienia, dzialajac z - acting on behalf (of)
ramowa, antena - frame aerial, loop aerial, loop
rana - wound, injury
rana otwarta - flesh wound
rane; dostac lekka rane (zapewniajaca powrot do kraju) - (slang) to get a Blighty one 
 opatrzyc rane - to dress a wound
ranga - rank
ranny - wounded, injured, hurt
 ciezko ranny - fatally injured
 lekko ranny - slightly injured
 ranny (niezdolny do marszu) - stretcher case
rannych; ewakuacja rannych na tyly - removing casualties to the rear
 punkt zborny rannych zdolnych do marszu - walking wounded collecting point
 straty w rannych - losses in wounded
raport - report, return
 codzienny raport stanu - daily strength return
 raport stanu liczebnego - strength return
rdzen patroli rozpoznawczych - rallying point
reflektor - searchlight
reflektor do ladowania w nocy - (airforce) land area floodlight
reflektor kursowy (szlaku lotniczego) - (airforce) course light
reflektor przeciwlotniczy - searchlight
reflektor pulapowy do pomiaru wysokosci chmur - ceiling projector
reflektor wszazujacy kierunek - (airforce) searchlight pointer
regulacja ruchu - movement control, traffic control
regulacja ruchu na odcinkach drog - sector control
regulamin sluzby polowej - Field Service Regulations
rejestr - register, list, record
rejestr oficerow marynarki wojennej - Navy List
rejestr zolnierzy sluzby zcynnej - active list
rejon - area, region
rejon grupowania sie oddzialow do dzialania - assembly area
rejon ladowania - landing zone
rejon postoju dywizji - divisional area
rejon rozproszenia - dispersion area, area of dispersion
rejon rozwinieca sie - deployment area
rejon wyjsciowy dla wojsk pancernych - (motorized) assembly area
rejon wzbroniony - prohibited area
rejon zastrzezony - restricted area
rejon zrzucania ( strzelcow spadochronowych lub zaopatrzenie) - (parachute) dropping zone (troops or supplies)
rekrutowac - to recruit
rekwizycja - requisition
relacja - report
remont (koni) - remount
represja - retaliation
rewia wojskowa - military review
rewolwer - revolver, gun
rewolwer bebenkowy szesciostrzalowy - six-chambered revolver
rezerwa - reserve
rezerwa uzupelniajaca - supplementary reserve
rece do gory! - hands up!
rekojesc - handle, grip
rekojesc broni siecznej - hilt
rikoszet - ricochet, repercussion
roboty porzadkowe - fatigue duty
 saperskie roboty polowe - field engineering
rodzaj broni wzgl. sluzby - branch of service
rodzaj terenu - nature of ground
rodzaje ogni - methods of firing
rogatka - toll
rogatka (brama) - toll-gate
rogatka (szlaban) - toll-bar
rokosz - mutiny, sedition
rokowania - negotiations
rolowac okop - to rake a trench
ropa - oil, (medical) pus
ropa naftowa - crude oil, petroleum
rozbic - to crash, to smash, to rout
rozbic jednostke - to disembody a unit
rozbic sie - (slang) to touch bottom
rozbijac oboz - to pitch a camp
rozbroic - to disarm
rozbroiz granat - to render a grenade harmless
rozejm - truce
rozjesc sie - dismiss!
rozglosnia - broadcasting station
rozkaz - order, dispatch
 odwolac rozkaz - to cancel the order, to revoke an order, to countermand
 periodyczny rozkaz Naczelnego Dowodztwa - General Routine Orders
rozkaz bojowy - operation order
rozkaz dzienny - daily orders
rozkaz operacyjny - operational order
rozkaz pisemny - written order
rozkaz poufny - confidential order
rozkaz specjalny - special order
rozkaz szczegolny - strict order
rozkaz tajny - secret order
rozkaz ustali - order will lay down
rozkaz ustny - verbal order
rozkaz wprowadzajacy - preliminary order
rozkaz wydany uprzednio - order given beforehand
 sprawdzic rozkaz - to check an order
 szczegolowy rzokaz dotyczacy niszczen - explicit order for destruction
 uniewaznic obowiazujacy rozkaz - to abolish an order
rozkazie dziennym, poprawka w - amendment in the daily orders
rozkazow; nieusluchac rozkazow - to disobey orders
 sposob wydawania rozkazow - method of issuing orders
rozkazu; odwolanie rozkazu - countermand
 w razie braku takiego rozkazu - in default of such order
 wytyczne do rozkazu (operacyjnego) - skeleton order
rozkazy dywizyjne - divisional orders
 wydawac rozkazy - to issue orders
rozkazac - to order, to command
rozkladanie karabina - stripping the rifle
rozladowac karabin - to unload the rifle
rozlacz! - dismount gun!
rozmowa alarmowa - emergency call
rozpoznac - to reconnoitre, to identify, to locate
rozpoznac (umiejscowic) silne punkty wzglednie punkty oporu nieprzyjaciela - to locate enemy strongpoints
rozpoznac sile - to discover the strength
 wybrac i rozpoznac dogodna marszrute - to select and reconnoitre a suitable route
rozpoznanie - reconnaissance, reconnoitring, identification, location, recognition
rozpoznanie artyleryjskie - artillery reconnaissance
rozpoznanie bliskie - short-range reconnaissance, short-distance reconnaissance, contact reconnaissance
rozpoznanie bojowe - contact reconnaissance
rozpoznanie dalekie - long-range reconnaissance
rozpoznanie dalekie wzglednie samodzielne - independent reconnaissance
 fotograficzne rozpoznanie - photographic reconnaissance
rozpoznanie lotniczne - air reconnaissance
rozpoznanie naziemne (terenu) - ground reconnaissance
rozpoznanie strategiczne (wyzszego szczebla)- strategical reconnaissance
rozpoznanie szczegolowe - detailed reconnaissance
rozpoznanie taktyczne - tactical reconnaissance
rozpoznania, elementy - reconnaissance parties
 pas rozpoznania - identification zone
rozpoznawanie samolotow - aircraft identification, aircraft recognition
rozpoznawczy (a,e); czolg rozpoznawczy - light tank
 dywizjon rozpoznawczy - (airforce) reconnaissance squadron
 flaga rozpoznawcza okretu - pennant
 lot rozpoznawczy - reconnaissance flight
 oddzial rozpoznawczy - reconnoitring detachment
 opancerzony samochod rozpoznawczy - reconnassaince car
 pluton rozpoznawczy - reconnaissance platoon, scout platoon
 pulk rozpoznawczy (wchodzacy w sklad dywizji pancernej) - armoured-car regiment
 szwadron rozpoznawczy - reconnaissance squadron
 znak rozpoznawczy - recognition signal
rozproszenie - dispersion, disbandment
rozproszenie w nieregularnym ugrupowaniu - dispersion in ragged formation
rozproszone oddzialy, zbierac - to gather dispersed troops
rozszerzyc dzialanie wachlarzowo - to fan out
rozwinac sie - to deploy
rozwiniecie do walki - deployment
rozwiniecie ostateczne - final deployment
rozwiniecie sie - forming up
rozwiniecia sie; gotow do - ready to deploy
 rejon rozwiniecia sie - deployment area
row - trench, ditch
row do pelzania - crawl trench
row lacznikowy (dobiegowy) - communication trench
row pozorny - dummy trench
row przeciwodlamkowy - slit trench
row strzelecki - trench
rowu; odcinek ogniowy rowu strzeleckiego - fire bay
 wjechac (wpasc) do rowu - to ditch
rownaj w lewo! (w prawo!) - left dress! (right dress!)
ruch - movement, motion, manoeuvre
ruch cichy - silent movement
ruch naprzod - advance
ruch pociagow - railway service
ruch uliczny - traffic
 zamaskowac ruch oddzialow - to conceal the movement of troops
rzezba terenu - feature
rzucic do boju odwody - to throw in reserves
rzucic do walki - to embattle
salwa - salvo, volley, (air force) round
samochod - motor-car, car
 maly otwarty samochod osobowy - (slang) blitz buggy
 maly samochod osobowy - (slang) pick-up
 opancerzony samochod rozpoznawczy - reconnaissance car
 opancerzony samochod transportowy - armoured troop-carrying vehicle
samochod ciezarowy - lorry
samochod ciezarowy zamkniety - van
samochod do przewozu wojska - troop-carrying vehicle
samochod do przewozenia czolgow - transporter
samochod dowodzenia (nieopancerzony, zaopatrzony w radio) - lorry command vehicle
samochod pancerny - armoured car
samochod polciezarowy - truck
samochod szesciokolowy (trzyosiowy) - six-wheeler
samochod zwiadowczy - scout car
samoczynny (a,e) - automatic
 bron samoczynny - automatic weapon
samolot - aircraft, aeroplane, plane, (slang) kite
 pojedyncze zadanie wykonane przez samolot - sortie
samolot bombowy - bomber aircraft
samolot do bombardowania z lotu nurkowego - dive-bomber
samolot do zrzucania min - mine-laying aircraft
samolot doswiadczalny - experimental aircraft
samolot dwuosobowy - two-seat aircraft
samolot jednoosobowy - single-seat aircraft
samolot konwojujacy flotylle rybackie - (slang) kipper kite
samolot mysliwski - fighter aircraft
samolot mysliwski do przychwytywania - interceptor fighter
samolot mysliwski dwusilnikowy - twin-engined fighter
samolot mysliwski Hurricane - (slang) - Hurryback
samolot mysliwski wielodzialowy - multi-cannon fighter
samolot nad nami! - aircraft overhead!
samolot nierozpoznany - unidentified aircraft
samolot o konstrukcji drewnianej - aircraft of wooden construction
samolot oslaniajacy - weaver
samolot pierwszej linii - first-line aircraft
samolot podniesiony - jacked-up aircraft
samolot poscigowy - chaser plane
samolot przydzielony do dyspozycji wojsk ladowych - air component
samolot rozpoznawczy - reconnaissance aircraft
samolot taktycznego rozpoznania - tactical reconnaissance aircraft
samolot transportowy do przewozu wojska - troop-carrying aircraft
samolot wspolpracy z wojskami ladowymi - army co-operation aircraft
samolot zaopatrzony w torpede - torpedo-carrying aircraft
samolot zwiadowczy artylerii - artillery-spotting plane
 tylny samolot w szyku - (slang) tail-end Charlie
 wyprowadzic samolot z korkociagu - to extricate the plane from a spin
samolotem, wykonac ostry manewr - (slang) to jink away
samolotow, duza formacja - (slang) - balbo
samolotow nieprzyjacielskich - (slang) solid lump of blitz
 pojedynek samolotow - dog-fight
 rozpoznawanie samolotow - aircraft identification, aircraft recognition
 rzad samolotow - line astern
 zgromadzenie samolotow w powietrze - aircraft congestion
samolotu, atak na ogon - tail attack
 dziob samolotu - nose
 kabina samolotu - (slang) pulpit
 kadlub samolotu - fuselage
 ksiazka pokladowa samolotu - log book
 ogon samolotu - tail
 ostrzezenie o zblizaniu samolotu - warning of approaching aircraft
 plozy u samolotu - ski-undercarriage
 przyrzad do mierzenia szybkosci samolotu wzgledem ziemi - air sight
 wiezyczka samolotu - turret, cupola
 wyposazenie samolotu - aircraft accessories
 wyskoczyc z lecacego samolotu - to bail out
 zaloga samolotu - air crew
samolotowy (a,e); dzialko samolotowy - air cannon
 kotwiczne swiatla samolotowe - riding lights
 mechanik samolotowy - aircraft mechanic
 silnik samolotowy - aero engine
 strzelec samolotowy - air gunner
samoobrona - self-defence
sanitariusz-marynarz - sick-bay rating
sanitariusz-noszowy - stretcher-bearer
sanitarno-rozdzielczy, punkt - casualty clearing station
sanitarny (a,e,) - kolumna sanitarna - motor ambulance convoy
 kompania sanitarna II rzutu - rear field ambulance
 magazyn sanitarny - medical store
 pociag sanitarny - ambulance train, hospital train
 punkt sanitarny - aid post, dressing station
 samochod sanitarny - ambulance, ambulance car
sanitarna strefa zborna - collecting zone
 wysunieta kompania sanitarna - forward field ambulance
 wysuniety punkt sanitarny - advanced dressing station
sanki (armaty) - cinder block
saper - sapper, engineer
saperow; kompania saperow do budowy torow kolejowych - railway construction company
saperskie roboty polowe - field engineering
sad - court
 byc sadzonym przez sad wojenny - to be court-martialled, to be tried by court martial
sad wojenny - court martial
sasiadow, w oparciu o - en cadre
sasiedni odcinek - adjoining sector
schody - echelon
schody w prawo! - echelon starboard!
schowac sie w chmurach - (slang) to play pussy 
schron - shelter, refuge
schron bojowy - pill-box
schron przeciwlotniczy - air-raid shelter
schron ziemny - dug-out
seria ognia - burst of fire
seria strzalow - burst
seriami, strzelanie - firing in bursts
serie ognia, ciagle - continuous bursts of fire
siac zamieszanie - to spread confusion
siec niska - low wire entanglement
siec ognia - net of fire
 ustalona siec ognia - pre-arranged fire scheme
siennik - palliasse
 siennikow sloma, wypychanie - (slang) donkey's breakfast
silna przewaga - heavy odds, strong superiority
sila - power, force, strength, main
slia przebicia - penetrating power
sila uderzeniowa wozow pancernych - striking force of armoured vehicles
sil glownych, dolaczyc do - to rejoin the main forces
sila, cala - with might and main
sily glowne - main body (of troops)
sily ladowe - land forces
sily morskie - naval forces
sily pancerne - armoured forces
sily powazne - appreciable forces
sily powietrzne - Air Force
sily zbrojne - forces
skapitulowac - to capitulate
skarbnik - cashier, paying officer
sklad - store, depot, dump
 czasowy sklad sprzetu lub materialu - dump
 sklad amunicyjny (tymczasowy) - ammunition dump
 sklad broni - arsenal
 sklad glowny - depot
skladnica - depot, dump
skladnica amucyjna w bazie portowej - base ammunition dump
skladnica zapasowych pojazdow mechanicznych - vehicle reserve depot
 wysunieta skladnica amunicji - advance ammunition depot
skorupa - shell
skorzana kurtka bez rekawow i kieszeni - leather jerkin
skraj - verge, periphery
skraj (lasu, miejscowosci) - outskirt
 przedni skraj pozycji glownej - forward edge of main position
skrzydlo - flank
 odsloniete skrzydlo - uncovered flank
 zagrozone skrzydlo - threatened flank
skrzydlo - (air force) wing
 atak na skrzydlo - beam attack
 leciec skrzydlo w skrzydlo - to fly in line abreast
skrzydla, poszukiwac - to feel for flank
skrzydlami, z opartymi - en cadre
skupienie (ognia) - concentration
 strzelanie na skupienie - application shooting
sluchanie - listening in
sluchawka telefoniczna - receiver, telephone receiver
sluchawki - phones
sluchawki naglowne - headphones
sluzba - service, duty
 przymusowa sluzba wojskowa - compulsory military service
sluzba czynna - active service, active list
sluzba kartograficzna - Ordnance Survey
sluzba pomocnicza (bez broni) - non-combatant service
sluzba stala - regular service, regular army
sluzba wywiadowcza - secret service
sluzba zdrowia - Medical Service
sluzba, poza - off duty
sluzbe, medal za dlugoletnia - (slang) rooty gong
 stawic sie na sluzbe - to turn out for duty
 wyznaczyc na sluzbe - to detail for duty
sluzbie, po - off duty
 w sluzbie - on duty
 w czynnej sluzbie - on active service, serving with the colours
 zabity w sluzbie czynnej - killed on active service
sluzby, kolejka - duty roster
 okres sluzby - term of service
 regulamin sluzby polowej - Field Service Regulations
 wycofac sie z czynnej sluzby - to retire from active service
 zdolny to sluzby wojskowej - fit for military service
 zwolniony od sluzby wojskowej - exempt from military service
sluzbowa, droga - through official channels
sluzbowy, objazd - tour of duty
 oficer sluzbowy - orderly officer
 podoficer sluzbowy - orderly non-commisioned officer
 stroj sluzbowy - service dress
sol-wykrywacz - (gas detection) detector salt
spinacz blyskawiczny - zip fastener
spinacze (do spinania spodni w kostce) - anklets
splonka - detonator, primer
splonka handlowa - commercial  detonator
splonka podbudzajaca - (sappers) detonator
splonka zapalajaca (amunicja malokalibrowa) - cap
spocznij! - stand at ease!
spoczynku, oficer w stanie - retired offficer
 przeniesc oficera w stan spoczynku - to pension an officer
sposob wydawania rozkazow - method of issuing orders
sproszkowana kreda - powdered whiting
sprzecznosc - opposition
sprzet wojenny - war material
sprzymierzeniec - ally
sprzymierzone mocarstwo - allied power
spust - trigger
 spust bombowy - (air force) bomb-firing switch
stacja - station
 kolejowa stacja rozrzadowa - marshalling yard
 polowa stacja opatrunkowa - field dressing station
stacja amunicyjna - ammuntion railhead
stacja ewakuacyjna (sanitarna) - ambulance railhead
stacja ewakuacyjna (weterynaryjna) - veterinary railhead
stacja formowania pociagow (skladow) - shunting yard
stacja kolejowa - railway station
stacja koncowa - terminus
stacja odbiorcza - receiving station
stacja przeznaczenia - station of destination
stacja wyladowania - detraining station
stacja zaladowania - entraining station
stacja zaopatrywania - railhead
stac w postawie na spocznij - to stand at ease
stac w postawie zasadniczej - to stand at attention
stan - state, station, circumstance, establishment
 przejsc w stan spoczynku - to retire from active service
stan cwiczebny jednostki - effective strength of a unit
stan liczebny pulku - strength of a regiment
stan liczebny (wojska) w czasie pokoju - peace-time strength
stan bojowy - establishment
stan wojny - state of war
stan wyjatkowy - emergency
stan zagrozenia - state of emergency
stanu, codzienny raport - daily strength report
 oficer stanu spoczynku (st. sp.) - retired officer
 raport stanu liczebnego - strength return
stanowisko - position, stand, site, emplacement, viewpoint
stanowisko ciagnikow i wozow - (artillery) wagon line
stanowisko dowodztwa - (artillery) command post
stanowisko dziala - (artillery) gun platform
stanowisko gorujace (panujace, dommujace) - commanding feature
stanowisko karabina maszynowego - machine-gun post
stanowisko niedostepne - inaccessible position
stanowisko odporne na pociski artyleryjskie - shellproof emplacement
stanowisko ogniowe - gun site
stanowisko ogniowe (dla dwu lub wiecej dzial) - gun station
stanowisko pozorne - dummy position
stanowisko taktycznie silne - stronghold
stanowisko tymczasowe - temporary position
stanowisko ufortyfikowanwe - consolidated position
stanowisko umocnione - reinforced posotion, consolidated position, fortified position, prepared position
stanowisko zapasowe - alternative position
 utrzymac stanowisko - to maintain a position
 zajac uryte stanowisko - to take up a consolidated position
stanowisk; stwierdzenie stanowisk artylerii nieprzyjacielskiej - registration of enemy's artillery
 zajecie stanowisk - deployment
 zajmowanie stanowisk ogniowych - (artillery) occupation of gun positions
stanowiska; skupione stanowiska ogniowe dywizjonu - (artillery) accumulated battery position
 wycofanie sie na z gory upatrzone - withdrawl to prearranged positions
starcie - encounter, engagement
 wstepne starcie - preliminary engagement
stawac w obronie - to defend
stawiacz min - (navy) minelayer
stawiac opor - to offer resistance
stawic czolo - to front, to stand, to brave
stawic sie na sluzbe - to turn out for duty
stezenie - concentration
 skuteczne stezenie - effective concentration
stpie wojennej, na - on war footing
stopien - degree, grade, rank
stopien honorowy - honorary rank
stopien niezdolnosci - degree of disablement
stopien oficerski - officer's rank
stopien oficerski czasu wojny - commission for the duration of the war, emergency commission
stopien tytularny - temporary rank
stopien wojskowy - military rank
stopnia oficerskiego, zrezygnowac ze - to resign a commission
stoj! halt!
stoj, bo strzelam! - halt, or I'll fire!
stoj, kto idzie! - halt, who goes there!
stracic stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to lose touch with the enemy
stacona stycznosc (lacznosc) - lost contact
strata - loss, waste
strata w ludziach (z powodu dzialan wojennych) - casualty
strat; lista strat (w ludziach) - casualty list
 wykaz strat obejmujacy oficerow i pielegniarki - casualty return - Officers and Nurses
 wykaz strat obejmujacy podoficerow i szeregowcow - casualty return - other ranks
straty, przewidywane - anticipated losses
straty w zabitych i rannych - casualties in killed and wounded
 zadac ciezkie straty - to inflict heavy losses
strawne - ration allowance
straz - guard, watch
straz boczna - flank guard
straz nadbrzezna - coast guard
straz obywatelska - home guard
straz przednia - advance guard, vanguard
straz przyboczna - bodyguard
straz tylna - rear guard
strefa - zone, area
 sanitarna strefa zborna - collecting zone
strefa chroniona - protected area
strefa glownego oporu - main defensive zone
strefa martwa dla odbioru - (signals) blind spot
strefa niczyja - no-man's land
strefa niebezpieczna - dangerous zone
strefa ognia - zone of fire
strefa pozafrontowa - behind the lines
strefa walki - forward area
strefa wysunieta - forward area
strefa zagrozona - dangerous zone
strefa zakazana - prohibited area
strefa zanikania sygnalu - skip area
strefa zaniku odbioru - (signals) blind spot
stromy tor (pocisku) - high trajectory
stroj - dress
 oficerski stroj wieczorowy - mess dress
stroj spadochronowy - parasuit
stroj sluzbowy - service dress
strzal - shot
strzal chybiony - random shot
strzal odbitkowy - ricochet
strzal probny - trial shot
strzalow, seria - burst
strzalu, przygotowanie dziala do - manning the gun
strzelanie - shooting, shoot, firing
strzelanie na skupienie - application shooting
strzelanie ostre - actual firing, firing practice
strelanie seriami - firing in bursts
strzelania, przebieg - fire discipline
 zasady strzelania artylerii - gunnery
strzelec (strz.) - rifleman, marksman
strzelec konny - mounted rifleman
strzelec gonowy - rear air gunner, (slang) tail-end Charlie
strzelec samolotowy - air gunner
strzelec wyborowy - sharpshooter, sniper
sztrelec ziemny - (air force) - ground gunner
strzelcow; batalion strzelcow przewozonych - lorried infantry battalion, support battalion
 brygada strzelcow - rifle brigade
strzelcy konni - mounted rifles
strzelecki (a, e); dol strzelecki - rifle pit
 poprawka strzelecka - aiming allowance
 row strzelecki - trench
 stopien strzelecki - (sappers) banquette
 szczelina strzelecka - fire-step
 tarcza strzelecka - target
 wyszkolenie strzeleckie - musketry instruction
strzeleckiej, srodek tarczy - bull's eye
strzelnica - embrasure, shooting range, range
strzelniczy (a, e) - bawelna strzelnicza - guncotton
 otwor strzelniczy - loophole, embrasure
 sucha bawelna strzelniczy - dry guncotton
 tabela strzelnicza - range table
 tarcza strzelnicza - target
 wiezyczka strzelnicza - gun turret
 wiezyczka strzelnicza obracalna - revolving gun turret
stycznosc - contact, touch
 nawiazac stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to establish (first) contact with the enemy
 ponownie nawiazac stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to re-establish contact with the enemy
 stracic stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to lose touch with the enemy
 utrzymac stycznosc z nieprzyjacielem - to keep in touch with the enemy, to maintain contact with the enemy
stycznosci; byc w stycznosci z nieprzyjacielem - to be in contact with the enemy
 pozostawac w stycznosci z nieprzyjacielem - to remain in contact with the enemy
swoboda dzialania - freedom of action
swobode dzialania, zachowac calkowita - to retain complete freedom of action
sygnalista - (signals) signalman, signaller
sygnalizacja - signalling
 sygnalizacja dzwiekowa - (signals) sound signalling
 sygnalizacja semaforem - (signals) semaphore signalling
 sygnalizacja swietlna (blyskami swietlnymi) - (signals) flashing
 sygnalizacja tarczami (choragiewkami) - flag waving
 sygnalizacja wzrokowa - (signals) visual signalling
sygnal - signal, sign
sygnal morski "w potrzebie" - marine distress signal
sygnal niebezpieczenstwa - (signals) signal of distress
sygnal odwolawczy - recall signal
sygnal optyczny - visual signal
sygnal ostrzegawczy (zagrozenia) - warning signal
sygnalowka - bugle, trumpet
syrena - siren, hooter
syrena alarmowa - general-alarm siren
szabla - sword, sabre
szabla o szeroki ostrzu - broad sword
szaniec - rampart
 szance - field works
szarza - charge
szarza kawaleryjska - cavalry charge
szarzowac - to charge
szarzujac opor - by rushing opposition
szef - chief
szef sztabu - Chief of Staff
szef zandarmerii - Provost Marshal
szereg - line, rank, range, file
szeregowiec - private, (mechanized) trooper
szeregowiec lotnictwa bez specjalnosci - aircraft hand
szeregowiec lacznosci - signalman, signaller
szeregowy lotnictwa - airman
szkic - sketch, sketch map, chart
szkic perspektywiczny (widokowy) - panorama
szkic polowy - field sketching
szkielet obrony - backbone of the defence, skeleton of the defence
szkolenie - training
szkolenie pojedyncze - individual training
szkolenie wstepne - preliminary training
szkolenie zaawansowane - advanced training
szkola artyleryjska - Gunnery School
szkola ognia - (artillery) firing practice
szkola pilotazu drugiego stopnia - (air force) secondary school
Szkola Podchorazych Rezerwy - Officer Cadet Training Unit
szkola przygotowawcza pilotazu i nawigacji - Elementary Flying School
szkola szturmowa - battle school
szkola walki - battle drill
 Wyzsza Szkola Wojenna - Staff College
sznury naramienne - aiguilletes
szofer - driver
szofer autobusu - bus driver
szosa 1-szej klasy - main road
szosa 2-iej klasy - secondary road
szpada - sword
szperacz - sniper, scout
szpieg - spy
szpiegostwo -espionage
szpital polowy - ambulance
szpital wojskowy - military hospital
szpitala, wypisac ze - to discharge from hospital
szrapnel - shrapnel
sztab - staff
sztab regulacji ruchu - Regulating HQ
sztab scisly dywizji lub korpusu - advanced HQ
Sztab Glowny - General Staff
 dzial sztabu - branch of staff
sztandar - banner, flag, colours
szturm - assault, charge, storm
 szturmem, zdobyc - to take by assault
sztylet - dagger
szwadron (szw.) - squadron
szwadron czolgow - tank squadron
szwadron pancerny - armoured squadron, tank squadron
szwadron rozpoznawczy - reconnaissance squadron
szybkie posuwanie sie naprzod - swift advance
szybka wymiana ciosow - rally
szybkostrzelny - quick-firing
szybowiec - glider
szyfr - code, cipher
szyfr nie do odcyfrowania - indecipherable code
szyfr uzywany na nizszych szczeblach (od brygady w dol) - low-grade cipher
szyfr uzywany w wiekszych jednostkach (powyzej szczebla brygady) - high-grade cipher
szyk - order, formation
szyk bojowy - line
szyk czolowy - (navy) line abreast
szyk kluczowy - (air force) Vic formation
szyk luzny - open formation
szyk marszu - order of march
szyk schodkowy - echelon
szyk torowy - (navy) line ahead
szyk zwarty - close formation
 zmienic szyk celem zaangazowania nieprzyjacielem - (slang) to peel off
szykow bojowych (ugrupowania) przyjecie - forming up
scigacz artyleryjski - (navy) motor gunboat
scigacz torpedowy - (navy) motor torpedo-boat
scisly areszt - close arrest
sledztwo - investigations, cross-examination
smiertelny wypadek - lethal casualty
srodek tarczy strzeleckiej - bull's eye
srodki ostroznosci - precautionary measures
srodki pozorujace - measures of deception
srodki transportowe nieuzbrojone - soft transport
swiadczyc - to certify, to attest
swiadectwo - certificate
swieca dymna - smoke producer
swieca gazowa - generator
swieca lzawiaca - (gas protection) lachrymatory generator
 ziemna swieca nawigacyjna - (air force) navigation flare
tabela - list, table
tabela ogni - task table
tabela strzelnicza - range table, table (range), (artillery) tabular range table
tabelaryczne warunki strzelania - (artillery) standard conditions
tablica obliczeniowa - ready reckoner
tabor bojowy - first-line transport
tabor kolowy - wheeled transport
tabor samochodowy do przewozu wojska - troop-carrying echelon
tajemnica wojskowa - military secret
tajny - secret
taktyczne uzycie - tactical handling
taktyki, zwyciezyc przez zastosowanie lepszej - to out-general
tamburmajor - Drum Major
teatr wojny - theatre of war
telefonista - (signals) operator, (artillery) Signaller
telegrafista - telegraph operator, operator
teoetyczne punktowanie terenu - silent registration
teren - ground, terrain, land
 cwiczebny teren gazowy - gas compound
 odzyskac (odbic) teren - to recover ground
teren bagnisty - marshy ground, swampy ground
teren blotnisty - muddy ground
teren ciezki - difficult country
teren falisty - undulating ground
teren gesto pokryty - close country
teren miekki - soft ground
teren otwarty - open country
teren pagorkowaty - hilly ground
teren piaszczysty - sandy ground
teren plaski - flat ground
teren podmokly - soaked ground
teren rowny - even ground
teren zalesiony - wooded area
teren zapewniajacy nalezyta obrone - ground providing adequate defence
teren zdobyty (opanowany, uzyskany) - won ground
 tracic teren - to lose ground
 utrzymac teren - to stand one's ground
 wykorzystac teren - to take advantage of the ground
 zabezpieczyc teren - to secure ground
 zajac i utrzymac teren - to seize and hold ground
terenie, przygwozdzic w - to pin to the ground
terenu, uksztaltowanie - topographical feature
terenowy punkt orientacyjny - landmark
terenoznawstwo - topography, knowledge of the ground
terkotka alarmowa - trench rattle
tetryl - exploding composition
tlumik - silencer, suppressor
tlumik plomieni - flash eliminator, (slang) flame trap
toczyc wojne - to wage war
torpeda - torpedo
torpeda powietrzna - aerial torpedo
torpedowiec motorowy - motor torpedo-boat
towarzysz broni - brother-in-arms
towarzyszenie ogniowe - close support
trafienie w srodek celu - direct hit
transportowiec - troop ship
trauler - (navy) minesweeper
trebacz (w oddzialach pieszych) - bugler
trebacz (w kawalerii, artylerii i broni pancernej) - trumpeter
trotyl - trinitrotoluene (TNT)
trojkami marsz! - form threes!
trojkat w przod! - one up!
trojkat w tyl! - two up!
trup - corpse
trzymac krok! - keep in step!
twierdza - fortress
tylny most z kolami w samochodzie trojosiowym - bogie
ubezpieczenie - protection, guard
 dzialajac jako ubezpieczenie - acting in a protective role
ubezpieczenie bezposrednie - local protection
ubior - dress
ubior ogniotrwaly - fire-proof clothing
ubranie cywilne - plain clothes
uchwycenie i utrzymanie (krotkotrwale) - (brief) seize and hold
uchwycic teren - to seize ground
ucieczka paniczna - rout
uczen Szkoly Podchorazych - Officer Cadet
uderzenie - attack, push, hit, beat, blow, shock, knock
 rozpoczac uderzenie - to launch an attack
 czolowe udezenie - frontal attack, attack from the front
uderzenie desantu morskiego - sea-borne attack
uderzenie jednolite - homogenous attack
uderzenie na bagnety - bayonet charge
uderzenie nieoczwekiwane - unexpected attack
uderzenie od tylu - attack from the rear
uderzenie od strony slonca - down-sun attack
uderzenie osiagnelo swoj cel - attack pressed home
uderzenie skrzydlowe - flank attack
uderzenie z rozmachem - drive
uderzenie zmasowane - mass attack
 wytrzymac uderzenie - to sustain an attack
uderzenia, koncentracja do - massing for attack
udzielic nagany - to reprimand
ugrupowanie - formation, disposition, disposal
 przyjac najodpowiedniejsze ugupowanie - to adopt the most suitable formation
ugrupowanie do bitwy - battle array
ugrupowanie kluczowe - (air force) Vic formation
ugrupowanie plytkie - shallow formation
ugrupowanie trojkatem w przod - arrowhead formation
ugrupowanie trojkatem w tyl - inverted arrowhead formation
uklon wojskowy - salute
uklon wojskowy, wymienic - to exchange salutes
uksztaltowanie terenu - topographical feature
ulan - lancer, trooper
umocnienie - fortification
umocnienie ziemne - (sappers) bulwark
umocnienie polowe - entrenchment
uniemozliwic wspoldzialanie - to upset a co-ordination
uporczywosc obrony - tenacity of the defence
urlop - leave of absence, leave
 otrzymac urlop - to get leave
 prosba o urlop - application for leave
urlop okolicznosciowy - special leave
urlop "polski" - absent wthout leave, (slang) French leave
urlop wypoczynkowy - privilege leave
urlop (ze wzgledow rodzinnych) - compassionate leave
urlop zdrowotny - sick leave
urlopie, przebywac na - to be on leave
urlopu, odwolac z - to recall from leave
 przedluzenie urlopu - extension of leave
 przekroczyc termin urlopu - to overstay leave
urlopy, wstrzymac wszelkie  - to suspend all leave
urzadzenie oporopowrotnikowe - (artillery) recoil system
urzadzenie wywolujace pozar - incendiary device
ustapic dobrowolnie z dowodztwa - to resign one's command
usunac z wojska - to dismiss from the army
utarty szlak - beaten track
utrata wspoldzialanie - to upset co-operation
utrzymywac porzadek - to police
uwage, zwrocic  - to arrest
uzbrajanie min - priming
uzbroic - to arm
uzbroic w dziala - to arm with guns
uzbroic w pancerz - to armour
uzbrojenie - armament
 uzbrojeniu, braki w - deficiencies in armament
wachta - (navy) watch
wachta bojowa - (navy) defence station
wachta kotwiczna - anchor watch    
walczacy - belligerent, combatant
 rzut walczacy - fighting group
walec Danerta - concertina wire
walka - fight, battle, combat, fighting, struggle
walka odwrotowa - rearguard action
walka podziemna - underground warfare
walka rozpaczliwa - desperate fight
walka ruchowa - running battle
walka spotkaniowa - encountered battle (attack)
walka wrecz - close fight
walki; pole walki - battlefield
 rozwiniecie sie do walki - deployment
 rzucic do walki - to embattle
 strefa walki - forward area
 szkola walki - battle drill
 zdolnosc do prowadzenia walki - ability to fight
walki gorskie - mountain warfare
walki lesne - bush and forest warfare
walki obleznicze - siege warfare
walki okopowe - trench warfare
walki uliczne - street-fighting
wariant - diversion
warta - guard, watch
 warta honorowa - guard of honour
warte; podwoic warte - to double the guard
 wystawic warte - to mount the guard
 wywolac warte pod bron - to turn out the guard
warty, zmiana - changing the guard
wartownia - guardroom, (slang) mush
wartownicza, budka - sentry box
wartownik - sentinel, sentry
wartownika; postawic wartownika - to post a sentry
 zmnienic wartownika - to relieve a sentry
wdarcie sie - penetration
 glebokie wdarcie sie w ugrupowanie - deep penetration
wedrzec sie - to penetrate
wedrzec sie na pozycje - to penetrate into a position
wedrzec sie (w ugrupowanie nieprzyjaciala) - to break in
wejsc do akcji - (slang) to go to the movies
wejscie tylko w sprawach sluzbowych - out of bounds except on duty
wejscie wolne - in bounds
wejscie wzbronione - out of bounds, no entrance
werbel - drum call
werbowac - to enlist
weryfikowac - to reclassify
wesz - louse
wglad, miec bezposredni - to have direct observation
wiedza o artylerii - gunnery
wieza dowodcy - (navy) conning tower
wieza dwudzialowa - (navy) double gun turret
wieza dzialowa- (navy) gun turret
wieza trzydzialowa - (navy) triple gun turret
wieza wodna - water-tower
wiezyczka; obracalna wiezyczka strzelnicza - revolving gun turret
wiezyczka czolga (samolotu) - cupola, turret
wiezyczka lodzi podwodnej - conning tower
wiezyczka przednia - nose turret
wiezyczka strzelnicza - gun turret
wkroczyc przez uzyciu sily - to enter by force
wodoszczelny - waterproof
wojenny (a, e); dodatek wojenny - war bonus
 gra wojenna - war game
 grob wojenny - war grave
 lup wojenny - booty
 odszkodowanie wojenne - war indemnity
 prawo wojenne - martial law
 rada wojenna - war council
 sprzet wojenny - war material
 Wyzsza Szkola Wojenna - Staff College
wojennego, wprowadzenie prawa - declaration of martial law
wojennej, na stopie - on war footing
wojna - war
wojna blyskawiczna - lightning war
wojna chemiczna - chemical warfare
wojna gazowa - gas warfare
wojna nerwow - war of nerves
wojna podziemna - underground warfare
wojna powietrzna - aerial warfare
wojna pozycyjna - positional warfare
wojna pustynna - desert warfare
wojna swiatowa - world war
wojna totalna - total warfare
wojne, prowadzacy - belligerent
 toczyc wojne - to wage war
wojny, stan - state of war
 teatr wojny - theatre of war
 wybuch wojny - outbreak of war
 wypowiedzenie wojny - declaration of war
wojsko - forces
wojsk wsparcia, grupa - support group
wojska - troops
 usunac z wojska - to dismiss from the army
wojska ladowe - army
wojska powietrzne (i spadochronowe i przewozne powietrzem) - air-borne troops
wojska przewozone - motor troops
wojska przwozone powietrzem - air landing troops
wojska spadochronowe - paratroops, parachute troops
 wstapic do wojska - to join the army
wojskowy (a, e) military
 druk wojskowy - Army Form
 druk wojskowy (oprawiony, broszurowany) - Army Book
 majster wojskowy - armament artificer
 misja wojskowa - military mission
 oddzialy wojskowe - troops
 pierwszenstwo wojskowe (np. w rozmowach telefonicznych) - military priority
 plaszcz wojskowy - greatcoat
 przysiega wojskowa - military oath
 przymusowa sluzba wojskowa - compulsory military service
 uklon wojskowy - military salute
 zapasy wojskowe - munitions
 orkiestra deta wojskowa - military brass band
wojskowej, zwolniony od sluzby - exempt from military service
wolny od sluzby - off duty
wolny wejscie - in bounds
wodz - leader, head
 Wodz Naczelny - Commander-in-Chief
wozek czolga - bogie
wrazliwosc (na uszkodzenie) - vulnerability
wroc! (w znaczeniu powrotu do poprzedniej postawy) - as you were!
wrog - enemy, foe, adversary
wsparcie - support, aid
 bezposrednie wsparcie lotnicze - direct air support
 odpowiednie wsparcie - adequate support
wsparcie artyleryjskie - artillery support
wsparcie bezposrednie - direct support, close support
wsparcie lotnicze - air support
wsparcie obronne - (tactics) - appui
wsparcie posrednie - indirect support
wsparcia; artyleria bezposredniego wsparcia - close artillery support
 czolg wsparcia - close support tank
 grupa wojsk wsparcia - support group
wspolpraca wszystkich broni - co-operation of all arms
wsatp! - fall in!
wstapic do wojska - to join the army, to enter the army
wstazka (orderu) - medal ribbon, cordon
wstep wzbroniony - no admittance
wstrzeliwanie - ranging, registration, (artillery) adjustment
wstrzeliwanie rozpryskowe - (artillery) air-burst ranging
wstrzymac wszystkie urlopy - to suspend all leave
wybrac i rozpoznac dogodna marszrute - to select and reconnoitre a suitable route
wybuch - burst, explosion, detonation
wybuch przedwczesny - premature explosion
wybuch wojny - outbreak of war
wycelowac karabin (w) - to point a rifle (at)
wychowanie fizyczne - Physical Training
wyciac w pien - to exterminate
wycinek - sector
wycior - cleaning rod
wycior do komory nabojowej - chamber-cleaning bristle brush
wycofac sie - to withdraw
wycofac sie z czynnej sluzby - to retire from active service
wycofanie sie - retreat, withdrawl
wycofanie sie na z gory upatrzone stanowiska - withdrawl to pre-arranged positions
wycofujace sie oddzialy - retiring troops
wydac rozkaz do otwarcia ognia - to give order to fire
wydac (wyrok) - to pass (a sentence)
wydawac rozkazy - to issue orders
wydzial - department, branch
wydzial personalny - personnel branch
wydzial zaopatrzenia - equipment branch
wydzielac amunicje - to serve out ammunition
wydzielic - to detach
wydzielony osrodek lacznosci - signal office
wykonac otrzymane zadanie - to accomplish (carry out) the given task
wykret - salvo
wymiana uklonow wojskowych - exchange of salutes
 szybka wymiana ciosow - rally
wypad - assault, raid, sally, sortie
 dokonac wypadu - to sally forth
wypadek smiertelny - lethal casualty
wypatrywacz - look-out man, spotter
wyposazenie - equipment, kit outfit, accessory
wypowiedzenie wojny - declaration of war
wyprawa - expedition
wyrok - sentence, verdict
wyrownac linie obronne - to rectify the defence line
wysadzic w powietrze - to blast, to blow up
wystajacy - salient
wystap! - fall out!
wstep (linii frontu) - salient
wystrzal - shot
wystrzelic - to fire, to shoot
wywiad obronny - counter-espionage
wywolac warte pod bron - to turn out the guard
wyznaczyc na sluzbe - to detail for duty
wzmacniac - to reinforce

zabity - killed
 prawdopodobnie zabity - believed to be killed
zabity w dzialaniach wojennych - killed in action
 zaginiony, prawdobodobnie zabity - missing, believed killed
zaciagnac (sie) - to enlist
zaciemnienie - black-out
zaciecie (w broni) - stoppage, jamming
zacieta bitwa - hard-fought battle
zaciety opor - stubborn resistance
zadac ciezkie straty - to inflict heavy losses (casualties)
zadanie - task, duty, (tactics) object, intention
 szczegolne (specjalne) zadanie - special mission
 wykonac otrzymane zadanie - to carry out the given task
zadanie glowne - primary task
zadanie zasadnicze - primary role
zaginiony - missing
zagrozenie - danger, threat, emergency
 nie zwazac na rosnace zagrozenie - to disregard the growing danger
 powazne zagrozenie - serious threat
zagrozenia; dzialanie na wypadek niebezpieczenstwa zagrozenia - action in case of emergency
 na wypadek zagrozenia - in case of emergency
 stan zagrozenia - state of emergency
 sygnal zagrozenia - distress signal
zajac i utrzymac teren - to seize and hold ground
zajac pozycje uderzeniem od tylu - to take a position from the rear
zajac ukryte stanowisko - to take up a concealed position
zajecie stanowisk - deployment
zajmowanie stanowisk ogniowych - (artillery) occupation of gun positions
zakaz opuszczania koszar - confinement to barracks
zakaz wwozu lub wywozu broni - embargo of arms
zakazu wychodzenia na ulice, czas - curfew
zakladac mine - to mine
zakladnikow, przytrzymac jako - to detain as hostages
zakonczenie dzialan - conclusion of operations
zakwaterowac - to billet, to canton
zakwaterowanie w barakach - hutting
zaloga - crew, garrison
zamaskowac - to camouflage, to conceal
zamaskowac ruchy oddzialow - to conceal the movements of troops
zameldowac sie - to report
zamiedzenie (lufy) - coppering
zamieszanie - confusion
 siac zamieszanie - to spread confusion
zamierzenie - aiming
zaopatrywanie wojsk w polu - maintenance of the army in the field
zaopatrzenie - supply, delivery
zapalarka elektryczna - dynamo exploder
zapalnik - fuze, igniter
zapalnik bezwladnikowy - graze fuze
zapalnik czuly (natychmiastowy) - extra sensitive fuze
zapalnik denny - base fuze
zapalnik elektryczny - electric detonator
zapalnik natychmiastowy - non-delay fuze
zapalnik rozpryskowo-uderzeniowy - time and percussion fuze
zapalnik rozpryskowy - time fuze
zapalnik uderzeniowy - percussion fuze
zapalnik wtloczeniowy - direct-action fuze
zapalnik ze zwloka - delayed-action fuze
zapewnic sobie posilki - to secure reinforcements
zarzadzenia kwatermistrzowskie - administrative arrangements
zasadzka - ambush, ambuscade
zasadzic - to sentence
zasieki z drutu kolczastego - barbed-wire entanglement
zasiegiem nacierajacych, poza - beyond the reach of the attackers
zaskoczyc - to take by surprise
zaslona - screen, cover, rideau, blind
zaslona dymna - smoke-cover
zaslona lampy sygnalizacyjnej - shutter
zaslona ogniowa - curtain of fire
zastepca ( zca) - deputy, second in command
zastosowanie ognia - application of fire
zastrzelic - to shoot
zastrzezenie - reservation, provision, salvo
zaswiadczenie - attestation, certificate
zbieg - deserter, runaway, absentee
zbiegostwo - desertion
zbiorowy wysilek (np. do przeciwnatarcia) - rally
zbiorka - rally, parade
zbiorka odpadkow - salvage
zbombardowany, obszar - (slang) blitzed area
zbrodnia obrazy majestatu - lese-majesty
zbrojmistrz - armourer
zbrojownia - armoury
zdobycz terytorialna - territorial gain
zdobyc szturmem - to take by assault, to take by storm
zdolnosc do poruszania sie w terenie (o pojazdach) - cross-country performance
zdolnosc do prowadzenia walki - ability to fight
zdolny do noszenia broni - able to bear arms
zdolny do sluzby wojskowej - fit for military service
zdrada glowna (stanu) - high treason
zespol zwiadowczy - reconnaissance
zglosic (sie) - to report
zglosic sie ochotniczo - to volunteer
zgodnie z planem - according to plan
zgodnosc odpisu stwierdzona - certified true copy
zgrupowanie dywizjonow lotniczych - wing
ziemianka - dug-out
zmiazdzyc opor nieprzyjaciela - to crush enemy's opposition
zmusic do ucieczki - to put to flight
zmusic nieprzyjaciela do poddania sie - to force the enemy to surrender
zryty pociskami - riddled with bullets
zuzycie dziala - (artillery) wear of the gun
zwiad - (artillery) reconnaissance
zwiadowca - scout, sniper
zwiazac sie (z nieprzyjacielem) - to engage (the enemy)
zwolnic iglice w karabinu - to uncock the rifle
zwolnic na slowo honoru - to let go on parole
zwolnic od sluzby wojskowej - to exempt from military service
zwolnic zakladnikow - to release the hostages
zwolnic ze stanowiska - to dismiss, to release, to fire
zle uzyc (zastosowac) - to misemploy
zle zrobione - (slang) black
zle zrozumiany meldunek - misread message
zrodlo - source, spring, well
zrodlo wiadomosci - source of information
zrodla, potwierdzenie z innego - confirmation from other source
 z dobrego zrodla - from good authority
zandarm - military policeman
zadanie ognia przez lotnika - call for fire
zadanie zapotrzebowania - requirement
zelatyna wybuchowa - blasting gelatine
zelatynowy, dynamit - blasting dynamite
zelazna, porcja - iron ration
zelinit - gelignite
zolnierz - soldier, fighter, combatant
 prosty zolnierz - (slang) Tommy, Tommy Atkins
zolnierz australijski - (slang) Digger
zolnierz piechoty morskiej - marine, (slang) jaunty
zolnierz sluzby pomocniczej (bez broni) - non-combatant soldier
zolnierze sluzby stalej lub wojsk regularnych - regulars
zywica - resin
zywnosc - food
 woreczek na zywnosc - rations bag
 zaopatrywac w zywnosc - to feed

Organization and Units as of April 30, 1945
(From Byron)
Commander - Lt. General Wladyslaw Anders
Deputy Commander - Maj. General Zygmunt Bohusz-Szyszko
Chief of Staff - Maj. General Kazimierz Wisniowski
Chief Medical Officer - Maj. General Dr. Boleslaw Szarecki
Chief Inspector of the Women's Auxiliary Service - Colonel Bronislawa Wyslouchowa
Aide de Camp - Captain Prince Eugeniusz Lubomirski
Colonel Reverend Jozef Joniec
3rd Carpathian Rifle Division - Maj. General Bronislaw Duch
    1st Carpathian Rifle Brigade
        1st Carpathian Rifle Battalion
        2nd Carpathian Rifle Battalion
        3rd Carpathian Rifle Battalion
        1st Field Ambulance
        1st Brigade Workshop
        1st Ordnance Workshop
        SOC Detachment
        Light Aid Detachment
    2nd Carpathian Rifle Brigade - Colonel Jerzy Sochocki
        4th Carpathian Rifle Battalion
        5th Carpathian Rifle Battalion
        6th Carpathian Rifle Battalion
        2nd Field Ambulance
        2nd Brigade Workshop
        2nd Ordnance Workshop
        SOC Detachment
        Light Aid Detachment
    3rd Carpathian Rifle Brigade - Lt. Colonel Gustav Lowczowski
        7th Carpathian Rifle Battalion
        8th Carpathian Rifle Battalion
        9th Carpathian Rifle Battalion
        3rd Field Ambulance
        3rd Brigade Workshop
        3rd Ordnance Workshop
        SOC Detachment
        Light Aid Detachment
    7th "Lublinski" Lancers Regiment
    3rd Carpathian Medium Machine Gun Battalion
    3rd Carpathian Engineer Battalion
    3rd Signals Battalion
    3rd Provost Company
    1st Transport Company
    2nd Transport Company
    3rd Transport Company
    12th Transport Company
    13th Transport Company
    3rd Field Hygiene Section
    3rd AMC Unit
    3rd Ordnance Field Park
    3rd Public Relations Section
    3rd Courts Martial
    Division Artillery - Colonel Lakinski
        1st Carpathian Field Artillery Regiment
        2nd Carpathian Field Artillery Regiment
5th Kresowy Infantry Division - Maj. General Nikodem Sulik
    4th Wolynska Infantry Brigade - Lt. Colonel Wiktor Stoczowski
        10th Wolynska Infantry Battalion
        11th Wolynska Infantry Battalion
        12th Wolynska Infantry Battalion
        4th Field Ambulance
        4th Brigade Workshop
        4th Ordnance Workshop
        SOC Detachment
        Light Aid Detachment
    5th Wilenska Infantry Brigade
        13th Wilenska Infantry Battalion
        14th Wilenska Infantry Battalion
        15th Wilenska Infantry Battalion
        5th Field Ambulance
        5th Brigade Workshop
        5th Ordnance Workshop
        SOC Detachment
        Light Aid Detachment
    6th Lwowska Infantry Brigade - Colonel Sawicki
        16th Lwowska Infantry Battalion
        17th Lwowska Infantry Battalion
        18th Lwowska Infantry Battalion
        6th Field Ambulance
        6th Brigade Workshop
        6th Ordnance Workshop
        SOC Detachment
        Light Aid Detachment
    25th "Wielkopolskich" Lancers Regiment
    5th Kresowy Medium Machine Gun Battalion
    5th Kresowy Engineer Battalion - Lt. Colonel Stanislaw Maculewicz
    5th Kresowy Signals Battalion
    5th Provost Company
    4th Transport Company
    5th Transport Company
    6th Transport Company
    15th Transport Company
    16th Transport Company
    5th Field Hygiene Section
    5th AMC Unit
    5th Ordnance Field Park
    5th Public Relations Section
    5th Courts Martial
    Division Artillery - Colonel Jerzy Orski
        4th Kresowy Field Artillery Regiment
        5th Wilenska Field Artillery Regiment
        6th Lwowska Field Artillery Regiment
        5th Kresowy Anti-Tank Regiment
        5th Kresowy Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment
Corps Units
    31st Corps Field Ambulance
    3rd Mobile Casualty Collection Section
    5th Mobile Casualty Collection Section
    45th Field Surgical Unit
    46th Field Surgical Unit
    47th Field Surgical Unit
    48th Field Surgical Unit
    49th Field Surgical Unit
    50th Field Surgical Unit
    32nd Field Hygiene Section
    34th AMC Unit
    35th Workshop
    13th Infantry Troops Workshop
    15th Infantry Troops Workshop
    363rd Recovery Company
    37th Ordnance Field Park
    40th Corps Stores Convoy Unit
    350th Ordnance RH Company
    375th Mobile Laundry
    377th Mobile Bath Unit
    378th Mobile Bath Unit
    Corps Public Relations Section
    Corps Troops Public Relations Section
    Survey Directorate
    12th Corps Field Survey Company
    312th Field Survey Map Depot
    Map Photographic Section
    12th Courts Martial
    370th Salvage Unit
    371st Salvage Unit
    372nd Salvage Unit
Corps Artillery - Maj. General Roman Odzierzynski
    (2nd Artillery Group)
    9th Heavy Artillery Regiment
    10th Medium Artillery Regiment
    11th Medium Artillery Regiment
    12th Medium Artillery Regiment
    13th Medium Artillery Regiment
    7th Anti-Tank Regiment - Lt. Colonel Antoni Dolegi-Cieszkowski
    7th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment
    8th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment
    1st Artillery Survey Regiment
    No. 663 Air Observation Point Squadron - Major E. Pawlikowski
    567th Searchlight Battery
2nd Corps Base
    7th Infantry Division (Training Unit) - Maj. General jozef Giza
        17th Infantry Brigade
            21st Infantry Battalion
            22nd Infantry Battalion
            23rd Infantry Battalion
        17th Field Artillery Regiment
        17th Engineer Company
        17th Signals Company
        17th Medium Machine Gun Company
        7th Workshop Company
    7th Armored Refit Regiment
    Army Training Center
    Army Troops Training Center
    Central Armored Forces Higher School (Gallipoli, Italy)
    Polish Engineers Wing (Capua, Italy)
    Polish Tactical School (Benevento, Italy)
    A Guard Battalion
    B Guard Battalion
2nd Warszawska Armored Division - Maj. General Bronislaw Rakowski
    Deputy Commander - Colonel Klemens Rudnicki
    2nd Warszawska Armored Brigade
        1st "Krechowiecki" Lancers Regiment - Lt. Colonel Kazimierz Zaorski
        4th "Skorpion" Armored Regiment - Lt. Colonel Zygmunt Dudzinski
        6th "Lwowska" Armored Regiment
        2nd Motorized Commando Battalion
        9th Armored Brigade Transport Company
        9th Field Ambulance
        9th Ordnance Field Park Company
        9th Workshop Company
        2nd Public Relations Section
        9th Signals Company
        9th Engineer Company (Completed in September of 1945)
        9th Provost Platoon
        9th Courts Martial
    16th Pomorska Infantry Brigade
        (Forming, not completed until June of 1945)
        64th Infantry Battalion
        65th Infantry Battalion
        66th Infantry Battalion
        16th Engineer Company
        16th Signals Company
        16th Provost Company
        16th Brigade Transport Company
        16th Brigade Workshop
        16th Field Ambulance
        8th renamed 16th Field Artillery Regiment
        16th Anti-Tank Battery (Completed in October of 1945)
        16th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery (Completed in October of 1945)
            Major Tadeusz Dobrzanski
        16th Brigade Support Company (Completed in October of 1945)
        Counter Mortar Staff
    Carpathian Lancers Regiment
    15th Engineer Company
    15th Signals Company
    7th Horse (Field) Artillery Regiment - Colonel Tadeusz Anders
        (Converting to a self-propelled unit)
3rd renamed 14th Wielkopolskich Armored Brigade - Colonel Wladyslaw Bobinski
        (In Egypt)
        3rd "Slaskich" Lancers Regiment
        10th Hussars Regiment
        15th "Poznanskich" Lancers Regiment
        14th Engineer Company
        14th Signals Company
        3rd renamed 14th Light Field Ambulance (Never completed)
        3rd renamed 14th Armored Brigade Transport Company
        14th Workshop Company
        14th Provost Section
        14th Service Company
Corps Troops
    12th "Podolskich" Lancers Regiment - Lt. Colonel Leon Fudakowski
    10th Engineer Battalion
    11th Signals Battalion
    Guard Battalion
    10th Bridging Company
    21st General Transport Company
    22nd General Transport Company
    23rd General Transport Company
    24th General Transport Company
    316th Transport Company - Lt. Colonel Maria Trojanowska
    317th Transport Company
    320th Transport Company
    30th Independent Workshop Company
    326th DI Detachment
    327th DI Detachment
    328th DI Detachment
    331st Mobile Field Bakery
    332nd Mobile Field Bakery
    333rd Field Butchery
    334th Petrol Depot
    3rd General Hospital
    5th General Hospital
    7th General Hospital
    9th General Hospital
Preparation for the spring offensive on the Lombardy Plain
April 9, 1945
General Mark W. Clark - Commander
    - BRITISH EIGHTH ARMY - Lt. Gen. Sir Richard L. McCreery
          - XIII CORPS
                - 10th Indian Infantry Division
                - Italian Folgore Combat Group
          - X CORPS
                - Italian Friuli Combat Group
                - Jewish Brigade (recently arrived)
          - 2 POLISH CORPS
                - 3 Carpathian Infantry Division
                - 5 Kresowy Infantry Division
                - 2 Polish Armoured Brigade
                - 43 Indian Lorried Infantry Brigade
                - 7 British Armoured Brigade
          - V CORPS
                - 56 British Infantry Division
                - 78 British Infantry Division
                - 2 New Zealand (with 8 Indian) Division
                - 2 Commando Brigade
                - Cremona Combat Group
                - 9 Armoured Brigade
                - 2 Armoured Brigade
                - 21 Tank Brigade
          - ARMY RESERVE
                - 6 British Armoured Division
                - 2 Para Brigade
    - U.S. FIFTH ARMY - Lt. Gen. Lucian K. Truscott Jr.
          - IV CORPS
                - 10 U.S. Mountain Division
                - 1 Infantry Division (Brazilian Expeditionary Force)
                - 1 U.S. Armoured Division
          - II CORPS
                - 34 U.S. Infantry Division
                - 88 U.S. Infantry Division
                - 91 U.S. Infantry Division
                - 6 South African Armoured Division
                - Legnano Combat Group
                - 92 U.S. Infantry Division
                - 442 Japanese-American Infantry Regiment
                - 473 Infantry Regiment
          - ARMY RESERVE
                - 85 U.S. Infantry Division

9. Soviet Invasion - Polish Second Corps: Timeline
The NKWD: "In 1937... Stalin converted the NKVD into an enormous army, organized in divisions and numbering hundreds of thousands. NKVD branches were all-powerful at the local level. NKVD "special departments" functioned in all large enterprises and in all educational establishments. A huge network of informers embraced the whole country. Ostensibly, they operated on a volunteer basis, but they received substantial rewards, in particular steady promotion in their professions. Best of all, they could exact a bloddy reckoning from those whom they disliked. Their superiors at work trembled before them...
People fought for the right to inform.
Apart from the full-time informers, all citizens were obliged to join enthusiastically in the same activity. And even to inform on themselves."
"Stalin," Edvard Radzinsky, translated by H.T. Willetts, First Anchor Books Edition, 1997, ISBN 0-385-47957-9.
  • Soviet Union invades Poland (September 17).
  • Ribbentrop-Molotow Pact is signed (September 28).
  • Soviet-Lithuanian Pact (October 10).
  • The Germans invade Denmark and Norway (January 12).
  • First organized, mass deportation of Polish citizens to slave labour camps in Siberia (February 10).
  • Polish Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade is formed in Syria (April 2).
  • The Polish Highland Rifle Brigade begins its participation in the British attacks on German units in Norway (April 9).
  • Hitler invades France, Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg (May 10).
  • The Polish Highland Rifle Brigade is transferred to France from Norway (June 8-9).
  • With the collapse of France imminent, General Sikorski orders the evacuation of Polish troops from France to Britain and Switzerland (June 20).
  • Polish Government sets up in London (June 21). 
  • The Carpathian Brigade crosses into Palestine following the capitulation of France (June 25).
  • German Luftwaffe receives orders from Goring in preparation for the invasion of Britain (July 29). 
  • Polish-British Military agreement (August 5).
  • The Battle of Britain begins (August 12).
  • Hitler calls off the invasion of Britain (September 17).
  • Carpathian Brigade soldiers swear the Oath at Latrun (September 30).
  • Hitler orders the first directive for the invasion of Soviet Russia (December 18).
  • General Sikorski is received at the White House in the midst of his 5 week tour to the United States (April 8).
  • Hitler attacks and occupies Greece and Yugoslavia (April-May).
  • Germany launches invasion against Soviet Union (June 22).
  • Polish-Soviet Agreement (Sikorski-Maisky) signed in London (July 30).
  • Polish-Soviet Military Agreement signed allowing for the formation and supply of a Polish army on Russian soil (August 14).
  • Release of General Wladyslaw Anders from Lubjanka prison in Moscow. Gen. Anders is named Commander-in-Chief of this new Polish army (August 4).
  • Carpathian Brigade arrives at Tobruk (August 21).
  • Iran is occupied by British and Soviet troops (August 25).
  • The Polish Army in Russia (later to become the 2nd Corps) begins to assemble in the area of Tockoje, Buzuluk and Tatiszczewo (September).
  • A unit of the Women's Auxiliary Service (Pomocznica Sluzba Kobiet - PSK) is established in each of the military/refugee camps, with W. Piechowska as Chief Inspector (September).
  • The Polish Embassy arrives in the USSR (September 4).
  • Polish patrols of the Carpathian Brigade begin to sally forth from Tobruk (November7).
  • Tobruk relieved (November 27).
  • General Sikorski visits Moscow (November 29).
  • Polish-Soviet Declaration of Friendship and Mutual Assistance signed in Moscow by Gen. Sikorski and Stalin (December 4).
  • Japan attacks Pearl harbor (December 7). 
  • Carpathian Brigade participates in the Battle of Gazala (December 16).


  • Squadron Leader Helena Anna Paszkiewicz organizes the Polish Air Force Women's Service or PLSK, in which 1,400 women would serve (early 1942).
  • More than 200 volunteers would serve in the Polish Women's Auxiliary Sea Service (PMSK) organized by Ewa Miszewska (1942 onward).
  • Carpathian Brigade participates in the Battle of Bardia (January 2).
  • First units of the Polish army evacuate the Soviet Union (March).
  • Creation of the 3rd Carpathan Infantry Division (May 3).
  • The second evacuation of Polish army units and civilians from the Soviet Union. A total of 72,000 soldier and 42,000 civilian Poles of various faiths and ethnicities are evacuated despite the insistence of the Soviets that Jews and Ukrainians are not Polish citizens and are not allowed to leave (August-September).
  • General Anders meets with Churchill in Cairo (August 22).
  • General Anders transfers to the army headquarters at Quizil Ribat, Iraq (September).
  • American and British armies land in Algiers (November).
  • General Sikorski meets with American President Roosevelt. General Sikorski expresses his gratitude for the president's intervention and assistance in the evacuation of the Polish army into Iran. Roosevelt however, declines the General's plea to aid in the evacuation of European Jews (December 2-3).
  • General Sikorski visits the Polish community in Chicago (December 16).
  • A luncheon in honour of General Sikorski is given by the President of the Mexican Republic at the Chapultepec Palace (December 30). 


  • Women's Auxiliary Service (PSK) in Palestine is headed by B. Wyslouch (1943).
  • Some of the PSK volunteers are transferred from Egypt and Palestine to Scotland. They remain under the command of General Sikorski's daughter, Zofia Lesniowska, until her death on July 4, 1943 and thereafter under Col. Maria C. Lesniak (headquartered at the Rubens Hotel in London).
  • Churchill and Roosevelt meet at Casablanca (January 14-23).
  • German forces at Stalingrad surrender (January 31).
  • Germans broadcast the discovery of mass graves at Katyn forest containing thousands of bodies of Polish officers who it turned out, had been executed in May, 1940 by the Soviets (April 13).
  • The Soviet government, incensed at the Polish request for an impartial enquiry by the International Red Cross into the massacre, makes the occasion a pretext to break off diplomatic relations with the Polish government (April 26).
  • Axis forces driven from North Africa (May). 
  • General Sikorski visits Polish troops in the Middle East (May 26).
  • General Sikorski dies in a plane crash near Gibraltar (July 4).
  • General Sosnkowski becomes the new Polish Commander-in-Chief (July 10).
  • Allies invade Sicily (July 10).
  • King Victor Emmanuel III dismisses Mussolini as Prime Minister (July 25).
  • At the Quebec (Quadrant) Conference Churchill and Roosevelt decide to let Poland remain in the Soviet sphere of influence after the war (August 14-24).  
  • British Eighth Army crosses the Straits of Messina into Reggio at the toe of Italy (September 3).
  • Italy surrenders unconditionally to the Allies (September 8). 
  • U.S. Fifth Army lands on the beaches of the Gulf of Salerno (September 9).
  • Allies capture Naples (October 1).
  • Italy declares war on Germany (October 13).
  • The Polish 2nd Corps begins to transfer men and equipment from Egypt to the Italian peninsula (early December).
  • 3 Division sets sail for Italy (December 21).
  • 1,500 volunteers of the Women's Auxiliary Service transfer to Italy with the Polish Army units while 1,200 remain in Palestine and Egypt under the command of Col. Antonina Plonska (late 1943).


  • Soviet troops enter former Polish territory during their offensive against the Germans (January 4).
  • 3 Division begins its move to the front (settling temporarily in the immediate rear, south of Barlotta) (January 11).
  • First battle for Monte Cassino fought primarily by American and French trrops (January 20 - February 14). 
  • U.S. 5th Army lands forces at Anzio ((January 22).
  • Defensive operations of the Sangro Line (January 31 - April 15). 
  • The second, third and fourth 2nd Corps transports of troops units land in Italy (most landings disembarked at Taranto but also at Bari and Brindisi) (January 8, 25, February 8).
  • 3 Division begins to relieve 78 British Division on the Sangro River in a defensive role (February 2).
  • Corps Headquarters arrives in Vinciaturo (first half of February). 
  • Second battle for Monte Cassino, fought by New Zealand, Indian and British troops (February 15 - March 24). 
  • Polish 2nd Corps first engages the Germans on the Italian front (February 17).
  • The fifth 2nd Corps transport, carrying the bulk of 5 Division and the remainder of Corps troops, lands in Italy (February 21).
  • General Anders addresses the Polish nation in a radio broadcast from Italy. Poles in occupied Poland listen on illegal radios at risk of death (March 3). 
  • The sixth transport brings the balance of 5 Division and the remaining liquidation echelons to Italy (March 16).
  • General Sosnkowski visits the Polish troops in Italy (March 26).
  • 2 Armoured Brigade lands in Naples (April). 
  • Allied offensive across the entire width of the Italian peninsula begins. The Polish 2nd Corps attacks Monte Cassino but does not capture the monastery. However, the intensity of the battle ties up German troops and fire, allowing British advances in the neighbouring sector (May 11-12).
  • 2nd Corps regroups while harrasing the Germans with fire and patrols (May 13-16).
  • Second attack by the 2nd Corps begins. San Angelo is taken (May 17).
  • Monte Cassino is taken by the 2nd Corps. The Polish flag is hoisted over the ruins at 10:20 a.m. (May 18).
  • Hill 575 cleared (May 19).
  • Battles for Pazzo Corno and Monte Cairo (May 19-25). 
  • The Battle for Piedimonte once again ties up the Germans, allowing the British to open up Highway No. 6, the road to Rome (May 20-25).
  • General Anders and the 2nd Corps receive congratulations from the Home Army Comander in Poland via a telegram routed from London (June 2). 
  • 2nd Corps rests near Campobasso (late May - early June).
  • Allies enter Rome (June 4).
  • General Anders with his 2nd Corps, takes over command of the Adriatic sector, in the Pescara area. Pursuit of the enemy begins immediately (June 17).
  • General Anders has an audience with the Pope in Rome (June 20).
  • Pursuit of the enemy continues across the Musone river (July 1).
  • The Battle of Loreto (July 2-9). 
  • The Battle of Ancona (July 17-19). 
  • The 2nd Corps battles at Esino (July 21).
  • General Anders meets General Collingwood, the King of England, George VI at Perugia (July 26). 
  • The 2nd Corps occupies Senigalile (July 28).
  • Pope Pius XII blesses the Polish troops and receives visiting Polish Commander-in-Chief General Sosnkowski at audience (July 28).
  • The Warsaw Uprising begins (August 1).
  • General Anders is decorated in Rome with the American Legion of Merit. The ceremony takes place in the Piazza Venetia, where Mussolini had once proclaimed that "Polonia e liquidata" (August 1). 
  • Premier Winston Churchill visits General Anders (August 26).
  • Polish 2nd Corps captures Pesaro, the eastern anchor of the Gothic Line (August 31).
  • General Sosnkowski is dismissed and replaced by Home Army General Komorowski (September 30).
  • The Warsaw Uprising ends after 63 days of fighting (October 2).
  • General Komorowski is taken prisoner by the Germans (October 5).
  • 2nd Corps captures Mussolini's home town of Predapio (October 26).
  • 2nd Corps captures Rocca delle Camminate (November 3).
  • 2nd Corps troops force the river Lamone (December 3).


  • The 2nd Corps participates in the defense of the Senio River, allowing for a rest and replenishment period during the winter months (January 2 - April 5). 
  • The Communist, Soviet sponsored "Committee for National Liberation" transforms itself into an "Interim Government" and installs itself in Warsaw (January 18). 
  • 2nd Corps captures Imole (April 14).
  • 2nd Corps captures Bologna (April 21).
  • Germans agree to surrender in Italy (April 29).
  • German surrender becomes effective (May 2).
  • Dedication ceremony of the Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino (September 1).


  • General Anders is informed by new British Prime Minister Clement Attlee that the Polish Forces in the West are to be demobilized. The demobilzed soldiers are to be encouraged to return to Poland, under conditions stipulated by the Communist govenrment in that country (March 14). 
  • Victory Parade held in London. The Polish Forces, England's chief ally during 6 years of war, were not invited as a result of pressure from Moscow. Twenty-Five Polish airmen who were invited as individuals refused to participate in the parade as a matter of protest (June 8).
  • Six to seven million Germans expelled from former German territory on its border with Poland, the land having been given to Poland as compensation for the loss of the eastern Polish provinces to the Soviet Union.
  • The United States of America revokes its approval of Poland's new western border on the Oder-Neisse line to which it had agreed in 1943 at Teheran (September). It took until December, 1970 for the West German Government to concede this loss of territory, finally coming to terms with the reality of its lost war.  
  • General Anders is stripped of his Polish citizenship by the Warsaw Communist Government (September 26).


  • "Free election" is held which the Communist Party wins following a campaign of intimidation, mass arrests, physical violence and fraud (January 17).


  • Death of Stalin (March).


  • Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev denounces the crimes of Stalin at the Twentieth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party in Moscow (February).
  • In Poland attending the funeral of Boleslaw Bierut, Khrushchev suggests to the Polish Communist Party (PUWP) that it would be more popular if it had fewer Jews in its leadership (February/March).
  • Rioting in the streets of Poznan by frustrated Polish workers. Nearly 80 people lost their lives in fights with the security police and the army (June 28).
  • Khrushchev arrives in Warsaw and threatens the use of armed force against the Polish Communists who are losing the support of the Polish nation. Soviet troops mass at the border while armoured and motorized units stationed in Poland converge on Warsaw. In response, the Polish Communist Party calls the workers to armed readiness and Polish troops take up defensive positions (October 19).
  • Khrushchev backs down; it becomes clear that a use of force would be met in kind. After some assurances from Gomulka, Khrushchev and his staff, which includes Molotov, Mikoyan, Kaganovich and some dozen generals, depart for Moscow (October 20).
  • Soviet tanks enter Hungary (November 4).
  • Gomulka leaves for Moscow to rework the Polish-Soviet relationship and succeeds in gaining significant freedoms from the Soviets (November 14-18).


  • Warsaw radio announces a series of large price increases on meat, flour and sugar, just as the Christmas season approaches (December 12).
  • Workers at the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk march on the provincial Party headquarters (December 14).
  • In Gdansk, police open fire on the demonstrators and men on both sides are killed (December 15).
  • Workers in the Gdynia and Szczecin shipyards are fired upon with dozens of deaths as a result (December 17-18). 
  • Edward Gierek, newly elected First Secretary of the Party, admits to the Polish nation, on radio and television, that 'the working class was provoked beyond endurance' and that the Party had lost contact with the nation (December 20).


  • Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, Archbishop of Krakow, is elected Pope ((October 16).


  • The Polish Pope visits Poland (June).


  • Strike at the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk as the trade union Solidarity brings Lech Walesa to international attention (August 14).


  • The Communist Polish Government imposes martial law (December 13).


  • The President of the Polish Government-in-Exile, Mr. Ryszard Kaczorowski, formally passes the presidential insignia to democratically elected President Lech Walesa as the two Polish governments finally unite (December 22).


  • Exiled Polish veterans from around the world are finally able to return to Poland for a belated Victory parade signifying the ultimate victory over fascism and communism and uniting the soldiers of traditional Poland with those of modern Poland (August 15). 



10. The Germans and Soviets Invade:
In 1918, the Polish army had just been resurrected after 120 years of non-existence. Poland had been ruled by the Germans, Austrians and Russians since the late 1700s.
In the wake of the devastation caused by the First World War (1914-18) and the Polish-Soviet War (1918-20), Poland had only just begun to rebuild and re-equip its armed forces (and shattered economy). In September of 1939, Poland's young army of 1.25 million troops faced off against the well trained and well equipped German forces of 1.5 million troops on the western front followed by the Soviet Union's 1.9 million troops on the eastern front.
They did not stand a chance but nonetheless held out for 5 weeks (later France, with British help, gave up after only 6 weeks). Neither the Polish government or army ever signed an act of surrender.
The book Wojna Polsko-Sowiecka, 1939, Volumes 1 and 2, by Ryszard Szawlowski, Wydawnictwo Antyk, 1997, Komorow, Poland (ISBN 83-86482-49-4) is an excellent Polish language reference detailing the invasion from a military point of view. It is well supported by documents.  
11. Deported to the Soviet Union:
The deportations of Polish citizens, of all races and religions, into the depths of the Soviet Union are estimated to have reached some 1,700,000 persons. These deportations occurred mostly in the years 1939 to 1941 however the Soviets continued to deport any Pole that they did not like until Stalin's death in 1953!
Of these, it is further estimated that some 500,000 of them were children. Orphans were taken to Soviet "children's homes" where they were forcibly Russified.
Of the total deported:
- 681,400 were denied exit visas by the Soviets despite the amnesty for Polish citizens.
- 415,000 are resting in documented burial sites in the Soviet Union.
- 434,000 individuals are missing and unaccounted for.
Of the 22,000 officers captured as prisoners of war by the Soviets in 1939, sentenced to death by Stalin and murdered in the forests of the Katyn area, 15,420 were from 3 main camps:
1) Kozielsk (near Smolensk) - 4,500 officers and 500 others.
2) Starobielsk (near Charkow) - 3, 820 officers and 100 civilians and officer cadets.
3) Ostaszkow (near Kalinia) - 6,500 including KOP (border guards), priests, police and court staff.
Only 400 officers from these camps survived.

12. The Polish 2nd Corps in Italy:

Manpower Potential:
Polish Commanders in Italy initially expected the 2nd Corps to become the future army of a free Poland. Its potential growth was based on this manpower estimate: 
  • Troops in Great Britain: 4,881 officers and 22,287 other ranks
  • Army in the Middle East/Italy: 4,898 officers and 58,413 other ranks
  • Troops in France: 450 officers and 30,000 other ranks
  • Troops in Switzerland: 600 officers and 5,000 other ranks (according to another source there may have been as many as 12,000 members of the Polish 2nd Infantry Division in Switzerland). The Swiss, under pressure from Germany, never released these men.  
  • Germany - POW Camps: 17,000 officers and 40,000 other ranks - POW Labourers: 400,000 other ranks (out of a total of 1,200,000 male and 200,000 female labourers) - Men Forcibly Enlisted into the German Army: 600,000 other ranks 

[According to Hitler, the Germans captured 694,000 Polish soldiers in September of 1939 of which 30,000 were officers and 664,000 were other ranks.] 

  • Trained Men at Home (Poland): 9,000 officers and 150,000 other ranks  
  • Rumania and Hungary: 3,000 other ranks

For a total potential pool of 37,000 officers and 1,300,000 other ranks.

It is of interest to note that some 600,000 Polish men were forced to fight the Allies for the German Army.

2nd Corps Strength:

In the Soviet Union, by the end of 1941, there were 3 divisions totaling 38,000 troops. By the time the Polish Army left the Soviet Union in the summer of 1942 it was at corps strength and contained 7 divisions and 1 brigade with a total of 74,000 troops.

The evacuation of the Polish Corps from the Soviet Union was accomplished in two stages. The first stage consisted solely of  shiploads of Poles sailing from Krasnovodsk to the port of Pahlevi in Persia during the period March 24, 1942 to April 3, 1942. A total of 33, 069 soldiers were evacuated (1,603 officers; 28,427 NCOs and other ranks; 1,159 volunteers of the women's corps (PWSK) and 1,880 male and female cadets. They were accompanied by 10,789 civilians (of which 3,100 were children).

The second stage took place from August 9, 1942 to September 1, 1942, when the Soviets closed the border and ended any chance of escape for those who remained behind. The evacuation began once again with crossings across the Caspian Sea, but by the end of August German planes had begun bombing the ships and the remaining evacuees were directed overland, to the railhead at Meshed, also in Persia. From there, they travelled by train to Teheran. A further 2,430 officers, 36,701 NCOs and other ranks, 112 army staff members,  1,765 volunteers of the PWSK and 2,738 cadets were evacuated. Again, they were accompanied by civilians; 25,501 of them (including 9,633 children).  The total evacuated in the second stage amounted to 69,247 persons, of which 568 died in the destination port of Pahlevi.

The total figure of evacuated Polish  nationals during these two stages amounted to 113,105 persons. It is worth noting that the Women's Corps and the Cadet Corps, although legitimate units, served the useful purpose of recruiting civilians, who might otherwise have been left behind, into the army. The Soviets did not want Polish civilians to leave and for their part, the British, who were accepting the Polish forces into their fold, did not want the burden of feeding civilians. That any civilians were evacuated at all, was due to the refusal of the Polish authorities (starting with General Anders) to comply with Soviet and British demands in this matter. It hurt to leave any Poles behind. (Evacuation data provided by Dr. A. Garlicki, Ottawa.)

The Corps in Italy, in April 1944: 53,508 men, 1,290 women.   April 1945: 81,090 men and 1,933 women

Corps Casualties to April 25, 1945, by Battle:

From May through August 1944, every sixth member (7,400 troops) of the Corps had been killed or wounded.

River Sangro (January 31, 1944 - April 15, 1944): 24 killed, 170 wounded, 5 missing, total 199 (17 officers, including 4 majors, and 182 other ranks). 

Monte Cassino (April 24, 1944 - May 31, 1944): 924 killed, 2,930 wounded, 345 missing, total 4,199 (307 officers, the killed included Brigade Commander Colonel J. Kurek, and 3,892 other ranks).

Ancona: 496 killed, 1789 wounded, 139 missing, total 2424; about 400 soldiers are buried in the cemetary at Loreto.

Gothic Line: 257 killed, 1088 wounded, 13 missing, total 1358

River Senio (January 2, 1945 - April 9, 1945): 57 killed, 229 wounded, 67 captured, total 353

April 9, 1945 - During the aerial bombardment of German positions in the hours prior to the spring offensive on the Lombardy plain, one wave of Allied bombers released its loads too early. The bombs fell in the the area of the forward companys of both Carpathian Infantry Brigades assembled in their forming-up positions a few hours before the H-hour. Thirty-eight men were killed and 188 wounded, many being highly trained specialists prepared especially for the attack against the high flood-banks of the Senio River. They included sappers, anti-tank gun crews and signallers. In addition, the cable lines were cut and much battle equipment was destroyed.

Battle for the Lombardy Plain and Bologna (April 9 - 25, 1945): 1,352 killed, more than 4,500 wounded.

Casamassima Cemetery (Military Hospital # 1) contains 353 - 452 graves, mostly of soldiers who died of their wounds.

Monte Cassino Cemetery contains some 1,006 graves.

Loreto Cemetery contains some 1,000 - 1,083 graves, victims of the battles at Chienti, Musone, Loreto, Castelfidardo, Osimo, San Pietro, Ancona, Gothic Line and Appenines.

Bologna Cemetery, San Lazzaro di Savena, on the road from Bologna to Imola and Forli, contains some 1,352 - 1407 graves of soldiers who died "while crossing the seven rivers to Bologna."

San Vittore also contains a Polish military cemetery.

Czerwone Maki na Monte Cassino (Red Poppies on Monte Cassino): This haunting song was composed during the night of May 17-18, 1944 by Feliks Konarski. The melody was provided by A. Shutz and the song was first performed on the 18th in celebration of the victory.

Official Publications of Second Corps in the U.S.S.R.:

1) Orzel Bialy - The first issue of this weekly was published in Buzuluk in December of 1941. The 50th issue was published in Jerusalem in March of 1943. It continued to be published in London, most recently as a monthly, up until November of 2001.

2) Dziennik Zolnierza Armii Polskiej na Wschodzie

3) Dziennik Obozowy

4) Ochotniczka - the women's volunteer newsletter also had its first issues published in Buzuluk. It continued to be published until September of 1946.

5) Junak - For the child cadets.

Medical Corps:

The first hospitals were established in Buzuluk and Tatisczewo in the fall of 1941. All was transferred south to the Jangi Jul area in January of 1942. The hospitals were then further evacuated to Iran in two waves, following the army, in March of 1942 and further in August of 1942. Finally, the medical corps arrived in Italy where the first camps were near Taranto close by the Corps headquarters.

During the battles for Monte Cassino, the medical units took in anywhere from 80 to 400 wounded daily, mostly at night. Nurses worked a typical shift of 18 to 20 hours.

Anti-2nd Corps Propaganda

"It became evident that Russia was bent on seizing the Eastern portion of Poland, if not planning the complete subjugation of the country. By January 1944, the Russian government had set up an administration of Polish Communists which was intended to become the defacto Government. In the USSR, an army of Polish nationals, officered largely by Russians had been formed and was completely subordinated to the aims of the Soviet Government. The Polish Forces in the West, particularly the 2nd Corps, which were under British operational command had become the target of concentrated Russian abuse; accusations of anti-Semitism, cowardice and demoralisation were repeatedly broadcast from Moscow, while Soviet agents did their utmost to instigate desertion amongst the troops of the Corps. Russian propaganda was very similar to that emanating from the German propaganda service "Wanda" in Rome. By both sources the Polish soldier was told that the British Government had abandoned the Polish nation and that by continuing to fight under British Command he was reducing himself to the status of a mercenary.

"The British and American press, to preserve Allied unity, unwittingly lent weight to this Russo-German propaganda against Polish troops. Anxiety mounted as the Poles saw their natural aspirations towards returning to a free country gradually threatened by the needs of the Anglo-American-Russian accord. General Anders, in whom the Corps had implicit faith, succeeded outstandingly in maintaining the morale of his troops in the face of these powerful disruptive forces." (The Polish 2nd Corps and the Italian Campaign, Madeja, Game Publishing, 1984)

"The so-called Union of Polish Patriots was brought into being in Russia, including among its members Madame Wanda Wasilewska (who was married to the Soviet Commissar Kornieytchuk), (Lt. Col. Zygmunt) Berling, and others, while the powerful broadcasting station, called the 'Kosciuszko Station," built near Kuybyshev, was sson spreading libellous reports and propagating the idea of a Polish State entirely dependent on Soviet Russia. Its extravagant statements became a joke among the Polish troops in the Middle East, who knew what conditions really were in Russia." (An Army in Exile, Lt. Gen. Wladyslaw Anders, MacMillan, London, 1949)

13. The Communist Polish Army in the Soviet Union

Many of the Poles who were left behind in the Soviet Union when its borders were closed forever (late summer, 1942) joined the Polish Army formed in the Soviet Union by the Association of Polish Patriots, the Communist Poles. Those who joined early, in 1943 for example, usually did so simply because the chance for survival on the front was better than in the prisons and gulags. Later on, in late 1943 and throughout 1944 and 1945, as the Red Army marched into German held territory Polish conscripts were forced to join.

This Polish army was under the operational command of the Red Army, with most junior and senior command positions occupied by Soviet officers and all were constantly under the scrutiny of the Soviet political commisars who made sure that there was no anti-Soviet or anti-Communist subversion within the Polish ranks. It is estimated that about one-third of all officers in the "Polish" armies under Soviet command were Soviets.

The Polish Forces in the East had their genesis with the formation of the 1st "Kosciuszko" Infantry Division in May of 1943, under the command of colonel Zygmunt Berling. Simultaneously created was this division's political arm, the shallow showpiece known as the "Union of Polish Patriots" with Wanda Wasilewska at the head.

Within three weeks, the division had signed up 6,200 men. This figure swelled to 16,700 men by the middle of July. Polish colonel Zygmunt Berling was promoted by the Soviets to the rank of general on August 10, 1943. By that date, the 1st Division had grown and evolved into the 1st Polish Corps, and Berling was given command of the entire Corps. His seconds were lt.colonel Wlodzimierz Sokorski and general Karol Swierczewski, a former NKWD officer re-assigned by Stalin from the Red Army.

The Corps initially consisted of 2 infantry divisions, 2 brigades (1 armoured, 1 artillery), 2 independent regiments (air force and reserve) as well as Corps units such as Headquarters, Security and support staff.

With little troop preparation, on September 1, 1943, the strengthened 1st Division headed to the front. By the 12th and 13th of October, the Division had taken part in the Battle of Lenino within the operational command of the 33rd Soviet Army. In this first action, the undertrained Kosciuszko Division troops, not surprisingly, took heavy casualties. However, Stalin was never concerned with their lack of battle readiness or casualties. He used the troops as a political tool, bragging to the Western leaders how he had his Red Polish units in action in such a short time while the Polish 2nd Corps was still dilly dallying in the Middle East. He would repeatedly allege that the 2nd Corps' was too scared to fight the Germans for the remainder of the winter of 1943/44.

By the end of 1943, the Corps had added a 3rd infantry division and reorganized its artillery. The pre-war border of Poland was crossed by the Red Army near Rokitno (province Wolyn) on January 4, 1944. A troop strength of 32,400 had been reached by that date and by March of 1944, the Corps counted 40,262 men. On March 13, 1944, Stalin agreed to expand the Corps into a full Army.

At Sum, in the Ukraine, a reserve infantry regiment had been collecting the new Polish "recruits" rounded up by the Soviet political organs in the area, since January 31, 1944. By March, 1944, the Regiment's base became the forming centre of the Army.   

In 1944 the 1st Army contained 5 divisions, 8 brigades and 107,800 troops. The breakdown was as follows:

Regular Polish Army Forces (78,000 troops):


  • 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Infantry Divisions,
  • 1st Anti-Aircraft Division

Independent Units:

  • 1st Cavalry Brigade
  • 2nd and 3rd Howitzer Brigades
  • 1st and 5th Heavy Artillery Brigades
  • 1st Sapper and Engineering Brigade
  • 1st Armoured Brigade

Independent Regiments:

  • 13th Heavy Armoured Artillery Regiment
  • 1st Heavy Mortar Regiment
  • 1st Signals Regiment
  • 1st "Warszawa" Air Squadron
  • 2nd "Krakow" night fighter squadron

Independent Battalions:

  • 1st Motorized Reconnaissance Battalion
  • 1st Women's Battalion
  • 7th Independent Armoured Artillery Brigade
  • 5th Artillery Reconnaissance battalion
  • 1st Anti-Aircraft Battalion
  • 2nd Signals Battalion
  • 6th Motorized Bridge Building Battalion
  • 7th Motorized Engineering Battalion
  • 1, 2, 3rd Car Battalion
  • 1, 2, 3rd Road Battalion
  • 103 Signals Squadron

Polish Army Formation Centre in the USSR (27,300 troops):

Reserve Units:

  • 1, 2, 3, 4th Reserve Infantry Regiments
  • 4th Reserve Cavalry regiment
  • 3rd Training Tank Regiment
  • 21st Reserve Artillery Regiment
  • 2nd Reserve Signals Regiment
  • 2nd Reserve Engineers Regiment

Military Schools:

  • The Army Training Centre
  • Officer Training School
  • Cadet School
  • Field Officer Training School
  • Officer, Artillery School

Units Under Formation:

  • 1st Armoured Corps
  • 5 and 6th Infantry Divisions

Support and Maintenance Units

Polish Partisan Command (2,500 troops):

  • 1st Airborne Commando Unit
  • Partisan Groups and Units operating Behind Enemy Lines

By the end of July, 1944, the Polish Army in the USSR counted 113,592 soldiers equipped with 1,588 artillery pieces and mortars and 182 armoured vehicles.

By the end of the war, as Poland was re-occupied and Poles were forcibly conscripted, the troop numbers had swelled to 400,000 men and women in two armies. Most of these consisted of untrained or cadre formations.

After war's end, many key positions such as chief of the general staff, commander of ground forces, heads of all the service branches and commanders of all military districts, were held by Soviet officers. Hundreds of supplementary Soviet military advisers were brought in. Finally, Marshal Konstantin Rokossowski, one of Stalin's senior wartime commanders, who was of Polish origin, reluctantly became minister of defence and commander-in-chief in 1949. It has been justly observed that the result was the transformation of the Polish army into an essentially extra-national force, as directly subordinated to Moscow as any other Soviet military district. Ascherson

The Soviet Propaganda Version (from Liberation Mission, a laughable book which outlines how the wonderful Soviet Union saved eastern Europe from Fascism and "liberated" its peoples.):

"In May 1943 the formation of truly popular Polish troops in the USSR entered a new stage. Expressing the interests of the Polish people and its desire to fight arms in hand against fascism, the Union of Polish Patriots sought the Soviet Government's assistance in raising a Polish division. In the opinion of the Union of Polish Patriots the Polish Division would be the new embryo of a new Polish Army which would embrace progressive idealogy and the freedom-loving traditions of the Polish people and rely on the alliance and friendship with the USSR. The Soviet Government met the request and on May 6, 1943 the State Defence Committee authorised the formation of the Tadeusz Kosciuszko 1st Polish Infantry Division. Colonel Zygmunt Berling was appointed its commander.

"It took three weeks to bring the division up to authorised strength. The principal difficulty was that of preparing the necessary number of officers, and the 920 Poles who were enrolled in Soviet military schools were put through a shortened training course. A hundred and fifty Soviet Army officers, many of whom were from western regions of the Byelorussian and Ukrainian republics and knew Polish, were assigned to medium-level command posts.

"The divisional command was faced with the formidable task of turning the division into a battleworthy force in a mere three months. It was trained in line with the Soviet Army regulations, but Polish military traditions were not in the least infringed. The Polish flag, Polish anthem, Polish uniforms and Polish songs became a part of the life of its officers and men.

"After six weeks of training the division received its colours and took the oath of allegiance. On July 15, the anniversary of the historic battle at Grunwald, the Union of Polish Patriots presented the Polish 1st Division with a banner bearing the inscription 'For our freedom and yours.' "


Battle of Lenino: 12-13 October 1943, The (1st) Kosciuszko Division fought under the operational command of the Soviet 33rd Army in the Battle of Lenino. The division was poorly trained but was pressed into action prematurely in order to upstage the Polish 2nd Corps in the Middle East which had not yet seen any action. The division lost 3,054 men during the battle which included 510 killed in action, 1,776 wounded and 768 missing, of which some 400 had been taken prisoners of war by the Germans.

"Acting in close co-operation with the Soviet 42nd and 290th Infantry divisions, the Kosciuszko Polish 1st Division was ordered to breach the enemy defences at Lenino and then push towards the Dnieper... In the course of the two-day offensive which began on October 12, the Soviet and Polish divisions seized two strongly fortified resistance centres of Tregubovo and Polzukhi and inflicted heavy losses in manpower and weapons on the enemy... Although the success of the offensive proved to be of tactical importance only and was not exploited, the battle at Lenino was immensely significant from the political standpoint...For meritorious action at Lenino, the Soviet Government awarded orders and medals to 247 Polish officers and men, three of whom were conferred the title of Hero of the Soviet Union...It became obvious that the Polish troops had to receive serious training for action against the Wehrmacht. Consequently the training period of the 1st Army Corps was extended until the spring of 1944." (Liberation Mission)

On the Bug River: Polish artillery units employing 7,000 men and 260 artillery and mortar pieces supported the Soviet 312 Infantry Division in its attack near Turin. The Bug River was reached on July 20, 1944 after 3 days of fighting. The artillery units lost 47 men.


Battles in the Warsaw region during September and October of 1944 resulted in 4,830 casualties for the 1st Polish Army.

By January of 1945, 1st Polish Army had approximately 94,000 soldiers, armed with 1,500 artillery guns and mortars, 172 armoured vehicles and 118 airplanes.

The assault on Warsaw itself began on January 4. The 1st Bialorussian front, commanded by Soviet Marshal Zukow, attacked with the 47th Army from the north and the 61st and 2nd Armoured Armies from the south with the 1st Polish Army aiding to surround then liberate the Polish capital, which was accomplished by January 17.

Berlin: By the 25th of April, 1945, the city of Berlin was surrounded. In the final assault on the city, Polish units fought in the fold of the 1st Bialorussian Front, supporting the Soviet 2nd Armoured Army and 47th Army. The first Polish unit to engage in the battle was the 6th Pontoon-Bridge Battalion followed by the 2nd Howitzer Artillery Brigade, 1st Mortar Brigade and 1st Infantry Division. In all, 12,700 soldiers of the Polish Army took part in the Battle for Berlin. 

The entire campaign by the Polish Forces, from Lenino to Berlin, resulted in 57,890 casualties. Of that total, 26,113 were killed in action or died of their wounds, 1,385 were taken prisoner, 7,330 went missing in action and 23, 062 were wounded.


1)The Polish 2nd Corps and  the Italian Campaign, Witold Madeja, 1984.

2) General Anders' Army Exhibit, Pilsudski Institute, New York, New York, 1999.

3) Civil War in Poland, 1942 - 1948,  Anita J. Prazmowska, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

4) Ksiega Pochowanych Zolnierzy Polskich Poleglych w II Wojnie Swiatowej, Tom IV, Zolnierze Wojska Polskiego na Wschodzie, Oficyna Wydawnicza "Ajaks," Pruszkow, 1995.

5) Liberation Mission, no author is mentioned, translated from the Russian by David Fidlon, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1975.


14. "In Their Country's Service" Women - Soldiers of The 2nd Polish Corps 1941 - 1946

Text of the Commemorative Booklet published by the Headquarters of the Polish Women's Auxiliary Corps, 2nd Polish Corps, Rome, October 1946 

This collection of photos contains little text but what text it does contain is of interest. The introduction to the book will be followed by the snippets of information which accompany the photos.


  An historical event of major importance was the part played by women in the second world war. The impetus of national necessity pressed whole social groups into the service of the state. Conscription for women was introduced in most countries, but before this was the case, tens of thousands of women had enlisted in the armies of the warring nations. In many cases the new ideas and status gained as a result of this will remain a permanent part of the framework of women's sphere in the world.

  Owing to the special conditions of the combat in Poland, all service by women, whether with the Underground or in the Armed Forces had to be on a voluntary basis. The Women's Voluntary Corps, which was created both in Poland and abroad, produced the need for special regulations and organisation, often against the strong opposition of those who disagreed with women's right to serve. It may now be said that the Polish women played a predominant part in the struggle against opression, a fact which is fully realised by the whole nation.

  This book is not only a history in photographs of the life of the Polish Women's Auxiliary Corps, - the PSK - but it is also intended, in some measure, to give an idea of how the various organisations came into being.

  During the years of the war Polish women, in common with women of most Allied Nations, revealed many hitherto unsuspected traits of character. So little was previously known of the moral endurance and physical resistance of women, while even less was suspected of their attitude for work, their self discipline and reliance, or even of their courage. While these characteristics had been observed in exceptional cases, amongst those women distinguished in history as leaders of opinion, in this war such leaders were to be found in their thousands amongst Polish women. Colonel Mrs. Woslouchowa, Chief Commander of the PSK, stated "The women of the PSK always keep a stiff upper lip in difficult circumstances, are most consistent and reliable, and unconcerned about their personal well being. In every situation they find the one way out consistent with their patriotic outlook."

  When he created the PSK, after long negotiations with the Soviet Government, General Anders was actuated by two motives. First to save the greatest number of women from prisons and detention camps in Russia. Second to obtain the greatest number of auxiliary workers, as their movement from the camps was hampered by the N.K.W.D. - The Russian Secret Police . The creation of the Women's Army proceded step by step with the creation of its male counterpart. The women, who were on the same footing as the men, took up their work in hospitals, canteens, cookhouses, laundries and offices, and at the same time studied in the evenings for the passing of military technical tests.

  This convalescence after the hardships of camp and prison life in Russia, was the best manner of getting back to normal. Gradually the strain on the faces gave way, if not to smiles, at least to more peaceful recollections. In their first uniforms, they shyly faced photographers, but it was not until they got to the sunny land of Uzbekistan, that their first smiles really appeared as they danced around their camp fires, and felt honest pride in their marching.

  The main problem to be faced was that of coping with the thousands of Polish wanderers arriving from the far off parts of Russia to which they had been exiled, quantities of children, half starved, debilitated by disease and decimated by epidemics, had to be cared for and eventually taken with the Army when it moved into Iran. The members of the PSK had to undertake all this extra work, nurse the sick, and fight the epidemics which always follow armies in Russia.

  On arriving in Iran there was a feeling of liberty and ease. Once work there had been organized it was decided to try out women as lorry and car drivers, an experiment which had worked successfully with the British in the first world war, in order to free as many men as possible for purely military duties.

  A group of PSK left Iran and went to Palestine for training in signals and communications. Here also were started elementary and secondary training schools, on the lines of those previously organised in Russia for young girls. Here, with the sunshine and greenery, the younger generation found again the joy of life.

  By then the Polish Forces in the Middle East had been centered on Iraq, where in spite of the difficult climatic conditions, young women worked untiringly in hospitals, canteens and offices. The chief battle was with malaria, against which the unceasing efforts of doctors and nurses were called for. Eventually, their preliminary training completed, the Polish Forces left the desert and moved to Palestine. Here long convoys of lorries, driven by PSK, carried troops and stores across the sandy track from Baghdad.

  In the process of changing stations, companies of PSK were attached to Polish Divisional formations, while at the same time arrangements were made for the field canteens to be staffed by them. By the time the first tactical exercises were held in Palestine, all these services had been well enough trained to show their use. From Palestine the Polish Forces were moved to Egypt, this was to be their last stop before taking part in the European operations.

  Then came the splendid drive through Italy, in all of which the Polish Forces played their part. What the 2nd Polish Corps did at Monte Cassino, Ancona and Bologna is know to all and constitutes a glorious record. During this period the PSK ran hospitals, canteens, communications and transport, and in every field of work showed themselves to be possessed of a high sense of courage and devotion to duty. Their labours were an important contribution to the advance: munitions brought up on time, food delivered to the front line, messages brought through, and the general work of nursing the sick and wounded; all these played their part.

  When the war finished it was the hope of the PSK that they could return to a free Poland, but this has not been the case. Now they are going to yet another country, England, where it is felt that they will receive a cordial welcome and where the wide experience they have gained during the war years will be of use to them.

  We continue to live, striving for a better world, where there is peace and liberty after long years of fear and terror.

Herminia Naglerowa

Part One: Preparation

  On the seventeenth September 1939,  Soviet Troops entered Poland, at that time engaged in a desperate struggle with the German Armies. On the basis of the Ribbentrop-Molotov agreement, nearly half of Poland was submitted to Soviet domination, with the result that in two years, 1,692,000 Poles, regardless of sex or age were deported far into the wilds of Russia. Among them were 381,000 women and 379,500 children under fifteen years of age. Through the artic wastes, the Siberian tundras and the Western Asiatic steppes, through prisons and detention camps, amid humiliation, hunger and misery, these Polish women carried on bravely.

  On the 22nd June 1941, war broke out between Germany and Russia.

  Early in September of that year, on the basis of an agreement between the Polish and Russian Governments, the steady stream of Poles released from detention camps and prisons, started their treks, in many cases over a thousand miles, to the Polish Army Recruiting Centres, set up in Russia by General Anders. Not only men, but also women and children thus joined the army. In this manner, on the Volga Steppes, between Kuibishev and Chkalov, was born the Polish 2nd Corps.

  After the evacuation of Russia, in March and August 1942, about 114,000 Polish soldiers and civilians went to Iran, leaving behind them 415,800 registered graves, 434,300 lost and dispersed persons, and 681,400 persons to whom the Soviet authorities did not give permits to leave.

  The untiring, strenuous march to Poland - through the mountains of Persia and the deserts of the Middle East, through the Mediterranean Sea, through the battle fields of Italy, Monte Cassino, Ancona, and Bologna - still continues.

  In this march the PSK - Polish Women's Auxiliary Service - has its own story.

A Selection of Photo Captions


  • Worn out clothes have been exchanged for warm ones which gave the PSK the (nick)name of "Penguins."
  • Polish Independence Day (November 11) was celebrated in Buzuluk by a Mass, at which General Anders was present.
  • At the time of the visit to the Polish Forces in Russia of the Polish Commander-in-Chief General Sikorski the first uniforms were just being issued.
  • Buzuluk was the first HQ of the Polish troops in Russia and for the organization of the PSK under Mrs. W. Piechowska. There also were started the canteen and medical branches.
  • Photo - sign on building "Polskie Sily Zbrojne - Konenda Garnizonu Buzuluk.
  • The new stations in the southern Soviet republic suffered much from epidemics, owing to the extremely harsh living conditions
  • Photo - Polish folk singing and dancing at the foot of the Pamir Mountains.
  • Photo - PSK on parade in Jangi-Jul, May 3rd 1942.
  • Photo - General Anders, Chief Chaplain Bishop Gawlina, Commander Mrs. Wyslouchowa, General Bohusz-Szyszko.
  • Under the strange sun, across the vast steppes wandered Polish children, hungry and ill... They had to be fed and clothed, and to have healed their starved bodies and horror-stricken souls. Now the Polish Army is looking after them.
  • Photo - Scores of fresh graves - History repeats itself. To the graves of the Polish insurgents who fell in Russia after the Polish Insurrections in 1831 and 1863 were added hundreds of thousands of others.


  • Photo - thin, weak, and ill young females lying on stretchers - Evacuation of military and civilian personnel from Soviet Russia: Young PSK recruits on their arrival across the Caspian Sea to Iran at the port of Pahlevi.
  • Organizing the Girl - Guides. Better living conditions speed up training. General and special courses are set up.
  • Photo - Young women in a truck - Journeying across the Iranian desert in Australian hats.


  • In the desert, in the valley of the Biblical Tigris and Euphrates, cities of white tents sprang up suddenly. Organised life started immediately and hitherto unheard foreign languages were encountered.
  • Photo - Signpost in the desert - Quizil-Ribat to Warsaw, 2,950 km.
  • General Sikorski, Polish Commander-in-Chief, visits the PSK during his stay in Iraq.
  • General Anders, Commander of the Polish Army in the Middle East, visits the PSK.
  • "Private Helen," the famous Polish comedienne in the desert: stage productions in the camps.


  • Under tents in the desert, in difficult climatic conditions, medical personnel fights tropical diseases.

Palestine and Egypt

  • Through Iraq and Transjordan towards Palestine.
  • A new Polish Centre founded by Polish soldiers in Jerusalem.
  • Photo - sign outside camp - Oboz Szkol Ml. Ochotniczek, P.W.A.S School Camp.
  • Young pupils at Rechoboth. A wide special educational curriculum was organised for the training of the PSK.
  • PSK following the Itinerary of the Holy Cross through old Jerusalem.
  • The places, the names and the scenery change but the tents are always the same. The lime-tree at the entrance of the camp in Rechoboth - the well known place for hitch-hiking.
  • All branches of the PSK take part in the last manoeuvres - before the Italian Campaign - in Upper Galilee.
  • After a complete and thorough schooling PSK girls have now become really good drivers.
  • In Egypt, a military camp at Qassasin between Cairo and Ismailia.

Action - Italy - Medical Services

  • Monte Cassino - The main Field Dressing station in the Inferno Track.
  • Soldiers lives were often saved by the blood transfusion service organised by the Polish Red Cross sisters.
  • Sisters taking temperatures, giving medicine, changing dressings, washing and feeding the seriously ill - smiling and saying a cheerful word to keep the soldiers in good spirits.
  • Chemical and bacteriological analyses help the doctors to make their diagnoses.

Signal Service

  • At the wireless set - signal service in action was a difficult and responsible task.
  • PSK signallers also handled Fullerphones, worked in the Post Office and cypher section.

Transport Service

  • Regardless of weather conditions PSK drivers kept steadily at the wheel.
  • Scenes from camp-life: For the first time the PSK 316th Transport Company slept under a roof at Arezzo.
  • Apart from carrying men and supplies PSK drivers had to take care of their vehicles, repairing small defects and often loading and unloading them.
  • The 316th and 317th PSK Transport Companies during the Italian Campaign, did the following: 43,339 journeys undertaken, 342,370 gallons of petrol used, 3,600,608 miles driven, and they delivered: 6,626 tons of ammunition, 27,283 tons of food, 41,306 tons of petrol-oil, 77,352 tons of transport material and 30,936 tons of building material for a total of 183,503 tons.
  • While soldiers of the 2nd Polish Corps were fighting on the Italian front, PSK drivers were delivering supplies as far as the second line.
  • American Congresswoman Mrs. Clare Booth visited a detachment and offered dolls as mascots.

Canteen Service

  • From the arrival in Italy to the last battle, Polish canteen workers were kept busy at their jobs.
  • Special canteen vans offered by the War Relief Services helped a lot in their work.
  • Behind the Senio river on the Bologna road, women soldiers canteen workers supplied meals within range of enemy artillery.

Entertainment, Office, Warehouse and Camp-Kitchens

  • The monotonous and burdensome work of clerks, typists and interpreters was, nevertheless an important factor in the common effort.
  • Camp cooking was not an easy job.
  • Shows were often given right up in the line.

After the War

  • After the defeat of the enemy, together with the victors of Monte Cassino, Ancona and Bologna, came the PSK, to receive their well-earned awards. General Szyszko-Bohusz decorated a number of the women.
  • New recruits: Taking life easy after hard times in civilian labour camps in Germany and Austria. After a short stay in transit camps the new recruits receive elementary training.
  • New recruits: After the Warsaw insurrection many women soldiers of the Polish Home Underground Army (A.K.) managed to join the PSK. Some of them had received cruel brandings (numbers on their arms) in German concentration camps. After six years of underground resistance, new members of the PSK trained in the 2nd Polish Corps.
  • Matera was the PSK training centre.
  • Many PSK soldiers from different units came to Porto S. Giorgio to finish their secondary school education.
  • Among the Italian universities where Polish boys and girls are pursuing their studies, that of Bologna is especially dear to Poles, because Nicolas Kopernik studied there.
  • In Macerata professional dressmaking courses were organised.
  • At the end of the war PSK's work and life went on normally in Transport, Signal and Canteen Companies as well as in Hospitals and Offices. The hospital work was chiefly the care of convalescents.
  • Aside from General Anders. a number of other important visitors visited the PSK  such as:  Lt. General Morgan and Chief Commander Lady Kathleen Rollo, ATS, Liaison Officer of the 26 BLU.
  • Cultural centres of the PSK included libraries and reading rooms, and a publishing house which produced books and periodicals such as the monthly "Ochotniczka."

The final thought as the PSK leaves Italy in the second half of 1946: "Our service and our duty are not yet finished. We shall leave Italy for Britain and perhaps later pass through still unknown lands until we reach our homeland, Poland, for which we have fought."


15. Quotes from the The Gulag Archipelago: 1918 - 1956 by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
Solzhenitsyn won a Noble Prize for this literary expose of the Soviet Gulag system and it is worth reading in order to gain an understanding of the well established world to which so many Poles were deported in 1939 thru 1941 (and after 1944).
Unfortunately, lost in a sea of tens of millions of inmates over a 38 year period, the Poles scarcely rate a mention in this book throughout some 1,300 paperback pages of type.
Only four quotes of any measurable size can be extracted:
1) Speaking of the year 1940, " they took, particularly, many Poles from former Polish provinces. (It was then that ill-fated Katyn was filled up; and then too, that in the northern camps they stockpiled fodder for the future army of Sikorski and Anders)."
2) Discussing the post war period, "A certain number of Poles, members of the Home Army, followers of Mikolajczyk, arrived in Gulag, via our prisons."
3) Describing the segregation of political prisoners (*58's) from the general camp population, "And in the Kolyma they hauled the Germans, Poles, and particularly notable prisoners from the *58's to such special compounds. But they immediately began to free the Poles in August 1941 (One hundred and eighty-six Poles were released from Zolotisty out of 2,100 brought there a year before. They went into Sikorski's army in the West. And there, evidently, they told all about Zolotisty. And in June, 1942, it was completely shut down)."
* 58 refers to the relevant article of Soviet law under which political prisoners were tried and convicted. In the gulag they were always treated worse than real criminals (the thieves and murderers).
4) Explaining the role of bad luck, "Sikorski displeased Stalin, and in one night they seized thirty Polish women at Elgen and took them off and shot them."  
Source: The Gulag Archipelago, Part 1, Harper and Row, 1973, pages 77 and 86 and Part 3, Harper and Row, 1975, pages 131 and 134, respectively.